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Traveeh Translation in Urdu pdf Parts 1 to 27

Dear Brothers and Sisters in Islam. If you are planning to attend Taraveeh prayers in your local mosque this Ramadan, please take some time out to read these few pages before each Traveeh to understand the major themes in the section of the holy Quran recited in Qiyamul Lail by the Imam. This brief pdf attachment is for Urdu readers who do not understand Arabic. May Allah increase your Eiman and accept your fasts, istaghfar, salat, sadaqa and god deeds in this blessed month. Ameen.

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Misconception about Animal Sacrifice

By Syed Sharfuddin

This short essay is in response to an article printed in Al-Watan paper in Saudi Arabia and reprinted in Saudi Gazette two years ago on 20 August 2017 with the same title as above.

http://saudigazette.com.sa/article/515440

In this article the learned writer, Brother Abdullah Al-Alweet, discusses 4 points. These are summarised below:

1) It is a misconception that Udhiya (Qurbani) is wajib on every Haji. In his view it is obligatory only for those who own herds of cattle, as mentioned in Surah Al-Hajj (Chapter 20 verse 28) of the Holy Quran. 2) Performing sacrifice on behalf of the dead is a mistake. Even Prophet’s wives did not perform Qurbani on behalf of the Prophet after his death. 3) Performing Qurbani on behalf of each member of the family is not correct. 4) It is not established from the Prophet or the Caliphs that Qurbani must be performed every year.

The verse under discussion is as follows:

لِّيَشۡهَدُواْ مَنَٰفِعَ لَهُمۡ وَيَذۡكُرُواْ ٱسۡمَ ٱللَّهِ فِيٓ أَيَّامٖ مَّعۡلُومَٰتٍ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّنۢ بَهِيمَةِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِۖ فَكُلُواْ مِنۡهَا وَأَطۡعِمُواْ ٱلۡبَآئِسَ ٱلۡفَقِير
[Translation: To attain benefits from them and invoke Allah’s name, in the specified days over the livestock Allah has provided them; and feed yourselves and also the poor.]
Note 1: Benefits refer to both wordily benefits and benefits in the hereafter.
Note 2: Specific Days are the day of sacrifice (Yomun un Nahr) and three days after in the month of Dhul-Hajj (Ayyam ul Tashreeq)
Note 3: Livestock refers to domestic cattle such as sheep, ram, goat, cow or camel.
Note 4: Poor include both the impoverished and destitute.

1.Animal sacrifice is not for everyone

Interpretation of Quranic verses requires complete knowledge 0f Ilm-ul-Kalaam. Anyone venturing to interpret the verses of the holy Quran for the public needs to have a thorough knowledge of the Tafaseer in Islamic resources especially if the interpretation is new and seeks to break away from a universally accepted meaning of a commandment. Brother Abdullah is not an Islamic Scholar or Sheikh or Mufti who has the required credentials to reject the prevalent meaning and give a new meaning to Verse 28 in Chapter 22 of the holy Quran. It is purely his personal view and he is entitled to his opinion offered in good faith. What is of concern, however, is that the article has been printed in a reputable Saudi newspaper. Muslims living outside the Kingdom who consider Saudi Arabia as the guardian of the Sunni Islamic faith could take it as the official opinion of the establishment and embrace it in their Hajj practice.

A survey of the Abrahamic Sunnah of Qurbani in other faiths reveals that the Jews abandoned it after the destruction of the Temple of Solomon because they believed that offering sacrifice of ram on Passover without the Temple was meaningless and that it should be postponed until the coming of the Messiah when the Temple will be rebuilt. In Christianity, a different view was taken, which was that the ultimate sacrifice was given by Jesus to expiate the sins of the children of Adam, implying therefore that crucifixion and ascension superseded animal sacrifice which was no longer necessary. In spite of this interpretation, some orthodox Jews and Christians have been performing Qurbani in some parts of Jerusalem. Only Muslims retained this practice because there is no room for improvising the Deen taught to us by Allah through the holy Quran and the Seerah of Prophet Mohammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him.

There are no references from the established books of Tafaseer and Ahadith supporting the claim that animal sacrifice is required only from those who have been blessed by Allah with the ownership of herds of cattle. The Hadith of Ahmad and Ibn Majah cited by Brother Abdullah is not limited to people owning herds of cattle but applies to all Muslims of means who can slaughter an animal once every year in the name of God. The Hadith is: ‘The prophet said whoever has the capacity but does not perform Udhiya (Qurbani) should not come to our prayer’, narrated by Abu Hurairah, radi Allah taala anhu.

In the tribal society of Arabia when Islam was brought to the people of Makkah and Madinah, sheep, goats and camels were the main source of a tribe’s or family’s social status, and a measure of its influence and wealth. A tribe’s or person’s net-worth was measured not by his bank account, portfolio of investments, real estate or stock market shares (because these did not exist then), but purely by the numbers of cattle one owned and traded. Slave trade was prevalent in those days but it was not for everyone. Those days of wealth, based on cattle ownership are long gone. Yet, Allah has established a criterion of wealth in this verse, which is that Hajj and Qurbani is obligatory on every Muslim who can afford to perform it. It is interesting that even today, car engines are graded at horsepower capacity, even though horses are no longer part of our modern transportation.

The verse mentions domestic cattle, which include sheep, cows and camels. It stands to reason that if the interpretation of the verse is what brother Abdullah would want us to believe, then there should not have been 7 shares in a cow sacrifice and 7 or 10 shares in a camel sacrifice, for it stands to logic that if one owned a large herd of cows or camels in ancient Arabia, Allah wound not want the sacrifice to be only one seventh of  the animal instead of the whole from a large herd.

Let us take brother Abdullah’s point to its logical conclusion. What would those people who owned such large herds have done with their cattle? They would have surely used them for transport, eaten meat and dairy products, worn woollen clothes and traded their cattle in the market to buy other things of daily use. Today a person who has the ability to perform Hajj also has the ability to do all this,- fly by planes, eat meat and dairy products, wear expensive clothes and purchase items of luxury such as stay in five star hotels, own houses, cars, iPhones and buy holidays. By applying the lifestyle of a cattle herder in the time of Prophet Mohammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him, to today’s average Muslim, Qurbani becomes wajib on every one who has the means to go for Hajj.

Islam is not a new faith; it is the final continuation of the Abrahamic faiths which preceded Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him. In the Judaic and early Christian faiths, we find evidence of households performing animal sacrifice through the priest. Islam freed worshippers from the stranglehold of priests and the requirement of dousing the blood of the animal at the altar of the temple, but it did keep the ancient tradition of animal sacrifice alive on the occasion of Hajj as the symbol of the sanctity of human blood (Ismail was replaced by a ram), repeating the life events Abraham performed around the Kaaba which is the focal point of Hajj and reinforcing the message all life belongs to Allah and only He can take it away.

2. Performing sacrifice on behalf of the dead is a mistake.
I would agree with brother Abdullah on the first part of his point but I am aware that some people offer Qurbani on behalf of the Prophet or two reasons: 1) In Tirmizi it is reported that Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him, told Sayidna Ali radi Allah taala anhu that after his death Ali should offer one sacrifice for himself and one on behalf of the Prophet. Secondly, it is reported that Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him, used to offer two sacrifices, one on his own behalf and the other on behalf of the Ummah. Therefore if being a member of the Ummah a person of means performs a Qurbani on behalf of the Prophet, I do not see any bidaa in it. Allah knows best.

3. Performing Qurbani on behalf of each member of the family is not correct.
I agree with brother Abdullah on this point. One Qurbani stands for one household and the earning member of the household should offer it for the whole family who live with him in the house.

4. It is not established from the Prophet or the Caliphs that Qurbani must be performed every year.

Abdullah bin Omar is reported to have said that the Prophet lived in Madinah for ten years and he performed Udhiya (Qurbani) each year. [narrated by Ahmad, 4935; Tirmidhi, 1507; and classified as as hasan by al-Albaani in Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh, 1475].  The two Eids are repeated every year in Islam, it stands to reason that the obligations of those Eids such as the morning Eid salat and special Ibadas associated with each Eid are performed uninterrupted. Although our Prophet performed Hajj only once, he did not stop Muslims from performing more Hajjs if they could afford it. Similarly, there is no Hadith, which specifically forbids Muslims from performing animal sacrifice every year.

May Allah guide us to remain steadfast on the straight path and save us from the guiles of Shaitan who is our permanent foe and the main cause of Adam’s exit from Paradise.

For a detailed discussion on the topic of Qurbani see

The Muslim Festival of Sacrifice: Origin, Evolution and Purpose

London 15 August 2019

The Muslim Festival of Sacrifice: Origin, Evolution and Purpose

By: Syed Sharfuddin

Every year, 2.1 billion Muslims in the world, including 3 million Muslims who travel to Saudi Arabia for performing the pilgrimage (Hajj) celebrate the festival of sacrifice ( Eid ul Adha) on the 10th day of the Islamic month of DulHajj with great enthusiasm and fanfare involving family and friends. Gifts are exchanged, homes are visited and good food is eaten and shared. Women decorate their hands and feet with Henna patterns and wear jewellery and colourful dresses. An important part of the celebration includes a hearty breakfast following the morning Eid prayer which includes fried liver and full fat kidneys from the freshly slaughtered sheep or cow in the re-enactment of the centuries old act of sacrifice by Prophet Abraham and his son Ismail to Allah, which was also observed by Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him, consecutively for ten years since his migration to Madinah from Makkah.

An Imam at a large sports-ground or exhibition centre or a mosque leads the morning Eid prayer followed by a short talk (Eid Khutba) on the significance of Qurbani. The earning members of every Muslim household perform the animal sacrifice (Qurbani) without requiring the services local Imam or religious authority.

“Qurbani is not associated solely with Hajj; it is Wajib (recommended) for all Muslims of means, men and women, in the three days (10-12) of DulHajj.”

Qurbani in History
The ritual of Qurbani (animal sacrifice) in Islam is a carryover from the past faiths and cultural practices going as far back as the Stone Age.

The early man had many things to fear, the foremost of which was illness and death. Animal sacrifice was therefore invented as a means to please the gods who enjoyed a powerful position in the heavens and were above humans in the order of universe. The act of sacrifice consisted of slaughtering a healthy and mature animal and dousing its blood at the altar of the temple, burning its fat on the altar and eating its meat as a symbol of the acceptance of sacrifice. [Surah Al- Maida, Chapter 5: Verse 27]. However, from the earliest times known to man, blood sacrifice became one of the most pervasive acts of human history.

In the Stone Age, animal sacrifice served many purposes: it enabled hunter-gatherers to coexist with one another by keeping their killer instinct focused on animal sacrifice instead of slaughtering humans on the altars; to establish peace and organisation in their groups; and to please the gods who provided an answer to the inexplicable forces of nature such as illness, scarcity of hun and death. Animal sacrifice also served the purpose of bringing humans and gods together. However, this is not to say that the dark forces of nature were not at work in that age which included cannibalism, human sacrifice and infanticide to please the deities, evidence of which is found in later centuries in some civilisations.

The sacrificial animals were domestic (not wild) and they usually had horns and complete hoofs. The horn was a symbol of crescent, which bore a relationship between the earthly animal and the deity living up in the heavens. Blood and meat was an important part of the sacrifice and was considered a harbinger of blessings, health and prosperity.

Qurbani in Greek and Roman Civilisations
Animal sacrifice was also an important part of the ancient Greek and Roman religions. In Greek and Roman civilisations, sacrifice increased family bonds and reinforced relationships within family and clan. Many households in the wealthy cities of Athens and Ionia offered sacrifice on social occasions such as coming of age for boys and girls and on citizenship ceremonies. Marriages and funerals also had their parallel public sacrifices.

Animal sacrifice and festivals also had a political angle. Sacrifice resulted in establishing a power hierarchy in society. Wealthy citizens often sponsored sacrifices for groups within the city or even for the city as a whole. These events brought great power and prestige to the sponsors. These power relationships within the city were often played out in the arena of sacrifice. The most powerful and prestigious families could give more. Shirking this responsibility, or giving a small offering meant shame for the giver and his family.

In 3rd century BC, there were temples in ancient Greece and Rome, which were dedicated to various gods. People offered sacrifice to fulfil their needs. For instance, at the temple of Asclepius, worshippers offered animal sacrifice seeking health and long life. The god Asclepius would appear in a dream and prescribe a cure to those who slept in the temple. People also came from all over the Mediterranean to the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi to pose questions to the priestess of Pythia and to offer sacrifice. The entire Delphic economy was based on income from these pilgrims who bought sacrificial animals and meat for the Oracle.

Qurbani in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was extremely polytheistic. A complex variety of gods and goddesses were worshipped in the land. These gods personified the diverse forces of nature such as storms, floods, fire and famine, and were represented in animal and human forms. The Egyptian Pharaohs were considered both as human rulers and divine beings. High Priests controlled temples where they led the worship and exercised considerable influence on the King as they alone could speak to the gods and intercede between the gods and the king. High Priests also decided how to dispose of the food and animal sacrifices and offerings made at different altars.

Qurbani in Babylon
Babylon had a lot of influence on the surrounding nations of the biblical times. It had a well-developed culture with all attendant aspects, of which religion was of supreme importance. There was a striking resemblance between the culture of Babylon and the later Judeo-Christian faith. There was elaborate worship of different divinities in Babylon. Sacrifices of animals and fowls at the temples were common, presided over by priests of the respective cults. It was their duty to offer sacrifices as part of worship on behalf of the worshipper, sometimes retaining portions of the sacrifices for their own use and upkeep.

Qurbani in Canaan
So far we have talked about animal sacrifice. But we also find in history sacrifice of infants, children and humans to seek the pleasure of the gods. In the polytheistic Canaanite culture the sacrifice of young children was offered to Chemosh, the god of the Moabites and Molech, the god of the Ammorites. The sacrifice of the first-born was considered to be the most efficacious since it was considered the best and dearest to the gods. Being an agricultural land, the religion of ancient Canaan was dominated by a plethora of sacrifices and offerings related to the months and seasons of the year.

Qurbani in Africa
Medieval African culture was a complex web of relationships both on the vertical (man to god) and horizontal (man to man) levels. The life of humans was viewed as intertwined and based on the hierarchy of supernatural world. The visible natural world was conceived as a duplicate of the invisible supernatural world. The interrelationship between these spheres of existence was much more a matter of experience, and required no division between the material and spiritual worlds. Even without being influenced by cultural or religious ideas, African faiths rested on the firm belief in the meeting of the two worlds of existence that cannot be objectively identified and analysed, nor defined in terms of life and being.

Blood sacrifice in African communities formed a very important aspect of religious worship and practice. But unlike sacrifice in other faiths, which offered the best of the living to the immortal gods, African sacrifice was used to recall the spirits of the good to overcome the spirits of the evil. The African priest was a combination of a wise man and a witch doctor.

Qurbani in Eastern Religions
In Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism, offering human or animal sacrifice is not mentioned in the religious literature, nor observed in the religious practice of their followers. Hinduism still retains offerings to the deities as a strong component of worship. However, certain cults within these faiths have practiced animal sacrifice to seek favour with the deities. In Hindu Nepal, until 2015 AD, large-scale slaughter of animals including buffaloes, pigs, goats, chickens, and pigeons took place every 5 years for the festival of Gadhimai, the goddess of power at the Temple of Bariyarpur near Kathmandu.

Qurbani in Judaism
Animal sacrifice was offered by the Jews throughout the period of the First and Second Temple. According to Hebrew Bible (Genesis.22, Exodus 29 and Psalms 69), Yahweh told Abraham to sacrifice his only and one child, Isaac. When Abraham complied and proceeded to slaughter his beloved son, Yahweh accepted it and substituted it with a ram. In commemoration of this act, every year on the eve of Passover, Jewish households took their baby goats to the Temple Mount for sacrifice by the Temple priests. The blood of the sacrificed goats was carefully collected and doused at the altar. The innards were removed from the carcass and burnt at the altar. The meat was returned to the families for eating in the festivities that followed.

After the Romans destroyed the Temple in 70 AD, the then religious leader of the Jews, Rabban Gamaliel II decreed that Jewish families should continue the sacrifice in their family homes on the eve of Passover. But over a period of time there was opposition to his advice. His opponents decreed that sacrifice could only be performed by the priests at the Temple Mount and since the Temple had been destroyed, the sacrifice should be postponed until the return of the Messiah when the Temple will be rebuilt.

Modern Jews have stopped the practice of sacrificing baby goats and sheep in their homes on Passover. Reform Judaism modified laws pertaining to sacrifice as mentioned in Exodus 13:12 and 24:20 and Numbers (3:11-13, 40-45) whereby human sacrifices became unacceptable to Yahweh. The Conservative Prayer Book retained references to the system of sacrifice but substituted the words: ‘we will offer’ with the words: ‘our forefathers offered’. However, some evangelical Jews in Israel who believe that the Messiah’s coming is very near, still observe the ritual of baby goat sacrifice on the eve of Passover in several places defying the Government ban.

Qurbani in Christianity
Christianity as we know it today did not begin in first century Judea. The Bible is a collection of 66 separate Books and Letters, written over a period of 1500 years after Christ. It is divided into the Old Testament (the first 39 Books) and the New Testament (the last 27 Books). While there is mention of Abraham’s sacrifice in the Books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Psalms, there is no mention of animal sacrifice in the Books of the New Testament. In fact, in the Christian dogma, the act of sacrifice has entered a new phase where instead of humanity offering sacrifice to seek the pleasure of God or obtain His forgiveness, God Himself sacrifices His ‘son’ to save humanity.

There are still a few scores of Catholics, Greek Orthodox and other Christians in Israel who observe animal sacrifice each year in the towns of Lodd, Jaffa, al-Khadar and parts of Jerusalem in the Holy Land.

“The blood or meat of the sacrificed animal does not reach God. What reaches Him is the fear of Allah behind such act.”

Qurbani in Islam
Islam retained animal sacrifice but changed its focus. Animal sacrifice in Islam confirms the Biblical teaching that God alone has the power to give life and take it away. If man uses meat as part of his daily food, he must take the name of Lord at the time of slaughter (the Halal method). It also follows therefore that man must sacrifice a healthy and good looking cattle with grown up horns and perfect hoof once a year in the name of the Lord.

While the Hajj is made obligatory only for those who can afford to perform it, animal sacrifice is not left to the rich alone. By making animal sacrifice Wajib (almost obligatory) for its followers, Islam negates building a social hierarchy on the basis of wealth in favour of egalitarianism and democracy.

The ram that replaced Abraham’s son in the supreme act of sacrifice (in Islam it was Abraham’s first born son Ismael, not Issac) symbolises the sanctity of human life. Human blood cannot be shed irrespective of the cause, except in self-defence. [Surah As-Saffat, Chapter 37: Verses 99-111]

Sacrifice is an act of worship in which Allah requires no intermediaries, such as a Temple or Priest. It is a direct action of man toward God who promises a reward for this worship equal to the millions of fibre or hair on the hide of the cattle. Zayd lbne Arqam , may Allah be pleased with him, relates that the Companions asked the Prophet, may Allah bless him and preserve him, ” What is Qurbani?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father lbraheem.” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool”, they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.”,(Ibne Majah)

In Islam it is not the blood or meat which reaches Allah; it is their piety which reaches the Lord. [Surah Al-Hajj, Chapter 22: Verse 37]. This underlines a fundamental departure in Islam from the earlier concepts of sacrifice on the altars of gods, which is: Allah asks you not for provisions; He provides provisions for you, and the [best] outcome is for [those of] righteousness. [Surah Al-Taha, Chapter 20: Verse 132].

According to a Hadith of Tirmidhi, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and preserve him, used to give two Qurbanis, one for himself and one on behalf of the Ummah. He also advised Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, to continue Qurbani and also give one on behalf of the Prophet.

The cattle permissible for Qurbani in Islam are ram, goat, sheep, cow, camel and buffalo. These should be of a certain age when their front 2 teeth have fully grown up (each cattle has its own maturity age). Sheep can grow up fully between 6 to 12 months; goats take 2 years, cows 3 years and camels 5 years. The animal selected for Qurbani should not be injured, blind, sick, handicapped, or have torn or capped years or horn. A cattle which has a small tear in the ear or a minor injury to the horn or has no horns at all, is allowed for Qurbani.

The blood of the Qurbani animal is impure and must be discarded. Meat can be used for feeding the poor and can also be used for eating by the family. Normally the meat distribution is: one-third for the poor, one-third for neighbours and friends and the one-third for family and relations. The Quran has already provided guidance about spending the best things Allah has given for the poor in Surah Al-Baqarah “O you who have believed, spend from the good things which you have earned and from that which We (Allah) have produced for you from the earth. And do not aim toward the defective therefrom, spending (from that) while you would not take it (yourself) except with closed eyes. And know that Allah is free of need and is Praiseworthy.” [Chapter 2: Verse 267]. On such occasions, ladies of the house are tempted to keep the best meat for the family and give away to the poor less attractive portions such as feet, head, under belly meat, ribs and other meat which is considered B grade for eating purposes. This should be avoided. If a person wants to give the entire cattle to the poor after sacrifice, it is allowed.

It is important not to make the animal an object of reverence or worship by touching its back and assuming that it will bring blessings. Celebrating Eid with decorating the house with embellishments, wearing new dress, wearing perfume and hosting dinners or barbecues is allowed but none of this brings as much reward and pleasure as feeding or clothing a poor family on Eid day.

The budget for Qurbani should include a reasonable amount for the cost of the cattle, transportation, grass or hey charges, cleaning and security expenses, if any, and slaughter costs. It is not recommended to settle with the butcher a portion of the meat or hide of the animal in lieu of slaughter costs. Often people donate the hide to a Madrasa or local charity but it is also permissible to use it for own use after treating it professionally. People forget that the butcher too is a poor man who deserves a share in the Qurbani meat. If your butcher has not done a Qurbani of his own, please remember to include him in your distribution list.

Future Challenges
Our detachment with nature is making the act of Qurbani more of a virtual worship than real. You don’t need to do anything except press a few buttons on your mobile phone and your Qurbani is done somewhere by someone on your behalf. This pastoral detachment is dangerous in so far as it carries the potential of boredom and redundancy by the passage of time, having no meaning or substance in the lives of Muslims. Industrialisation of abattoirs further contributes to this alienation. Vegetarian and animal protection movements are also squeezing space for Qurbani givers making it difficult to participate in Qurbani in a sanitary and health and safety conscious society.

“Our detachment with nature is making the act of Qurbani virtual instead of real.”

The argument: “teach someone how to catch fish instead of feeding him fish” is beginning to be used by a small minority of non-practicing Muslims for ‘reforming’ Qurbani. They don’t mind buying latest generation iPhones for their own use, but their objection to Qurbani which costs half the price they have paid for their cell phone or a forthcoming holiday to Majorca remain noisy. Questions are asked by liberal Muslims as to why can’t Qurbani money be donated for livelihood projects or to a charity for feeding the poor in a more sustained manner instead of feeding the Qurbani meat only for a couple of days. There is also some disinformation that Qurbani is obligatory for those who have gone to Makkah for Hajj but is not Wajib for those who are not on pilgrimage.

We live in a time when most of our private life is laid out on Twitter, YouTube, Instagram and Facebook. Care should be exercised in making sure that our Qurbani photos and videos remain within the close family and do not become a social competition on the internet to impress colleagues and friends. Qurbani is a special worship solely to seek the pleasure of Allah. [Surah Al-Baqarah, Chapter 2: Verse 271].

May Allah protect the believers from the insinuations of the devil and from introducing and following innovations in Deen. May He be our Guide and inspiration on the right path to Jannah.

31 July 2019

The Debate about Daarul Aman and Daarul Harb and the Question of Hijrah

By Syed Sharfuddin

Often a discussion about Islam in the West draws a blank on the point that Muslims living in non-Muslim countries do not consider these countries as Daarul Aman (abode for peace and obedience to God) but instead, as Daarul Harb (a place of war against Islam), implying that their loyalty to their country of residence is questionable. When faced with this argument, an ordinary Muslim is taken aback because a quick search of the Google will indeed give you definitions of Daarul Aman and Daarul Harb precisely as the questioner put it to them. This short essay is aimed at exposing the ignorance of many, and occasionally, the malafide intent of some, behind this question and exploring what are the different types of Daars (places of abode) and how a Muslim is required by Islam to conduct himself/herself in the given circumstances based on where s/he has established permanent residence.

The discussion about freedom to practice one’s religion is as old as the first Bill of Rights of 1215 AD (Magna Carta) but in Islam it goes as far back as 622 AD when Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and preserve him, migrated to the city of Madina due to persecution by the powerful tribes of Makkah where he was born and spent 52 years of his life as a trustworthy and honoured citizen. In the years that followed the Hijrah, the new reverts of Makkah were advised by the Prophet to leave their city and migrate to Madina in order to practice their faith freely and without any fear of persecution. In that context, Makkah came to be known as Daarul Kufr and Daarul Harb, while Madina became Daarul Islam and Daarul Aman. This description of Makkah was void after 08 AH when the inhabitants of Makkah embraced Islam, but the principle that established the basis of migration in Islam (Hijrah) remained and was further reinforced by the Holy Quran in Surah Al-Nisa: 89 and 97-98 and Surah Al-Anfaal: 72.

What is Daar?

Daar in Arabic is a place of abode, such as a house, a city or a country where people live and have the authority to enact laws, dispense justice, have their own government or conduct their affairs without external pressure. In this essay, Daar means an independent and sovereign state or an autonomous region or city protected by law. In the holy Quran Daar has been used in both meanings [Surah Al Asra: 5 and Surah Al Baqarah: 243].

Types of Daar.

According to the books of Fiqh there are three main types of Daar – Daarul Islam; Daarul Kufr and Daarul Harb. However, some scholars have provided more classifications as is explained below:

1) Daarul Islam. Also called Daarul Aman. It is used for a country where majority of the population is Muslim, its leaders are Muslim and its constitution or laws are based on the principles of Islamic law or elements of Islamic law.

2) Daarul Fisq. Same as Daarul Islam but its constitution or law is either not based on the principles of Islamic law or not followed in practice, especially with regards to Islamic obligations and prohibitions.

3) Daarul Murakkabah. Same as Daarul Fisq but its leaders are repressive and secular. They use Islam as a means to hold power. In such Daar, the Muslim majority can observe principles of Islamic law, especially with regards to Islamic obligations and prohibitions, but this can be wound up anytime, depending upon the opportunistic policies of leaders at the top.

4) Daarul Kufr: Where the majority of the population is non-Muslim, including its leaders, but its constitution or laws allow freedom of religion to minorities, and Muslims living in these countries can practice Islam freely and express it fully without any fear. Daarul Kufr may be as peaceful as Daarul Aman but the main difference is its laws are not Islamic and the majority population is non-Muslim.

5) Daarul Harb: Where the majority of the population is non-Muslim, including its leaders, and Muslim minority living in these countries is either persecuted on discriminated against, or has restrictions imposed on practicing its faith. The term Daarul Harb has also been used for a country or enclave where Muslims and non-Muslims are engaged in a conflict to establish ascendency over the other to acquire political power and control.

6) Daarul Sulh: Where there is a truce between Muslims and Non-Muslims in a country, as in the form of an agreement of peace or a no war pact.

7) Daarul Bagha: Where some breakaway rebel Muslims have moved to wage a war against Daarul Islam.

The first three types of Daars are countries commonly known as the Islamic world. The fourth type, as the name suggests, is the architype of a non-Muslim, democratic and secular country such as those in Europe, the Commonwealth and the wider Anglo-Saxon world. Daarul Harb is a far-right, repressive, occupying and totalitarian country opposed to Islam and Muslims.

It must be borne in mind that it is very hard these days to slap any of the above classifications on a country because of the complex, democratic and pluralistic nature of societies and their political systems. Besides, not every Daarul Islam is Daarul Fisq or Daarul Sulh and not every Daarul Kufr is Daarul Harb or Daarul Bagha.

 

Hijrah is irreversible. A Muslim cannot go back to a place where there are more sins and greater disobedience of God compared to where he is already living. If he does so, it is not Islamic Hijrah; it is economic migration.

 

Requirement of Hijrah

Hijrah literally means in Arabic to leave. But in the Islamic context, it means to migrate from one place of abode to another (whether country or city) in order to practice Islam freely, without any fear of persecution. Scholars make a distinction between worship and expression of Islam. Islamic worship comprises prayers, fasting, paying alms and pilgrimage. Islamic expression refers to worship, as well as, Islamic food, dress, festivals, marriage, education, awareness, culture and interest-free banking.

Hijrah is undertaken exclusively for the sake of Allah. It is not for earning a livelihood or making a better future for one’s family. It can only be undertaken to migrate from a place where it is hard to follow faith to a place where it is easy to do so. Once undertaken, Hijrah is irreversible. A Muslim cannot go back to a place where there are more sins and greater disobedience of God compared to where he is already living. If he does so, it is not Islamic Hijrah; it is economic migration.

Hijrah does not imply that a Muslim does not love the place where s/he is immigrating to another place. It is only for preserving and practicing his/her faith. In that sense, this is a personal sacrifice rendered for the sake of Allah. In Surah Al-Nahl: 41, Allah says, for such people, not only life will be better for them in this world but also in the hereafter.

Application of Hijrah

Daarul Islam. A Muslim is already in a place where s/he can practice and exhibit Islam freely in a Muslim society. Hijrah does not apply here.

Daarul Fisq: Hijrah also does not apply in Daarul Fisq because both the Muslim population and its leadership claim to be Muslims (even though they may not follow Islam in their lives) and no restrictions are placed on Muslims to practice their faith freely. In fact, by practicing Islam in Daarul Fisq, a Muslim can have a positive influence on other non-practicing Muslims to persuade them to put their faith in practice.

Daarul Murakkabah: Although the secular political leadership in such Daar may be using Islam as a means to cling to power while adapting to non-Islamic ways and allowing prohibitions forbidden in Islam, the majority population of such Daar is Muslim and can continue to practice and express Islam publicly. In this situation, Hijrah is suspended, meaning that it can become due only when certain conditions are met. These are: when the leaders impose restrictions on certain Islamic practices which are ordained by Quran and Sunnah; when a Muslim believes that his/her migration to a less corrupt Islamic country will result in more blessings and honour for him/her in practicing Deen; that s/he will be able to live under Islamic laws imposed by a just and Muslim ruler ; when his/her faith is eclipsed by non-Muslim values and there is a danger that s/he might become faithless like the leaders themselves (Surah Al Maida: 51 and Surah Tauba:65).

A group of scholars recommends that in Daarul Murakkabah where there may be pockets of disobedience in that country, a Muslim should migrate from one municipality or city to another to relocate in the neighbourhood of practicing Muslims.

Daarul Kufr: If Muslims who are settled in these countries have full constitutional protection to practice and express their faith freely without any fear of persecution or discrimination on grounds of religion, there is no requirement for them to undertake Hijrah. However, some scholars have stated that in such societies their faith is always exposed to the Haram dress codes, food and drink and social practices of the non-Muslim majority and there is a danger that over a period of time and after a few generations, they may stop practicing their faith and become murtids. These scholars, such as Ibn Taimiyyah, argue that while Hijrah is not wajib (due) in current circumstances, it is mustahib (preferred) because a Muslim should not live under the shadow of kufr when there is a choice available to him/her to migrate to Daarul Islam instead of residing in Daarul Kufr.

There is also another group of scholars, especially those from the Shaafi school who give the counter argument that a long as a Muslim living in Daarul Kufr does not endorse or engage in any acts of disobedience which are forbidden in Islam or are aimed to harm Muslims, Hijrah is not required. On the contrary, they argue that the presence of such Muslims can have a positive impact in portraying the correct image of Islam to the non-Muslim population who may have preconceived ideas about Islam and may not have any opportunity to observe the practice and exhibition of Islam so closely as the presence of Muslims in Western countries offers them.

There is practically no country in the world which openly refuses freedom of religion to its citizens guaranteed by the constitution and international human rights instruments

There is weight in the argument of Shaafi scholars that practicing Islam in Daarul Kufr helps to promote dawa through good deeds (amal-e-swaleh). Historically, Muslims who lived in the then Daarul Kufr, namely Spain, Turkey and India were successful in portraying the true image of Islam to their host populations resulting in large scale acceptance of Islam.

Daarul Harb: The situation in regard to Daarul Harb is, however, different. Hijrah becomes wajib (due) on the Muslims of that country where they are persecuted for their faith and it is no longer possible for them to practice Islam freely. They cannot abandon practicing Islam on the grounds that they were oppressed in the land where they lived and that circumstances did not permit them to perform their obligations or abstain from prohibitions. In Surah Al Nisa: 97, such Muslims are advised to migrate to another place, for Allah’s earth is vast to accommodate them elsewhere.

In a closely integrated and interdependent world a discussion on the relevance of Daarul Islam and Daarul Harb is academic, not practical

In Daarul Harab where a Muslim faces persecution, there can be four possibilities

1) S/he cannot practice Islam but can undertake Hijrah;
2) S/he cannot practice Islam but for reasons of health or finances cannot undertake Hijrah;
3) S/he enjoys a status or has an opportunity to practice Islam but despite intention cannot undertake Hijrah;
4) S/he enjoys a status or has an opportunity to practice Islam and also has the means to undertake Hijrah;

The position in respect of each of these conditions is as follows:

Conditon 1:
The Maliki, Hambali and Shaafi schools say that provided a Muslim has the means to migrate from Daarul Harb, s/he should not delay it. Their argument is that living in such a situation a Muslim is brought face to face with oppression without any opportunity to practice his/her own faith. Muslims living in Daarul Harb are exposed to anti-Islam propaganda; they frequently see and hear things, which are Haram and their children are exposed to influences which rapidly erode their own belief system. In Surah Al-Anaam: 68 Allah says do not sit with the oppressors, for their beliefs and values are not the way of Islam and the Prophet.

It can be argued that on paper there is hardly any country, which meets the definition of Daarul Harab. Every country which is a member of the UN is obliged to provide constitutional protection to its citizens in respect of fundamental freedoms, including the freedom to practice one’s religion. While the reality on the ground may be different, especially in conflict situations or during periods of political and economic instability and turmoil, the universal principle of freedom of religion is not in dispute. However, religious minorities, irrespective of whether they are Muslim or non-Muslim are victims of hate and religious persecution in a conflict situation, as documented daily by international human rights bodies which bring these incidents to the attention of their governments for redress. Where such a situation develops the recommendation is to emigrate.

Condition 2:
A Muslim who is unable to practice his/her faith freely in Daarul Harb and is also unable to emigrate is exempted from the requirement of Hijrah. Mostly the poor, women, children and old persons fall in this category who have no means to leave Daarul Harb. Allah says in Surah Al Nahl: 106 whoever accepts Islam but indulges in kufr (not shirk) with a heavy heart except that he even joined it with his will, for him there is chastisement from Allah and great punishment.

Condition 3:
Although a Muslim in this situation is exempted from Hijrah, Scholars say recommended that s/he should emigrate whenever circumstances permit.

Condition 4:
Although Hanafi scholars recommend that in this condition a Muslim should emigrate, Shaafi scholars say that subject to his life being safe, s/he should not move because s/he is able to practice faith and encourage other Muslims to do the same and not renounce Islam. Their logic is that such people can do Dawa and are a source of strength for those who have no means to emigrate.

Immigration and Refugee Law

In today’s world, movement of people across national borders is highly regulated and controlled by strict visa policies of each country according to its capacity and requirements. You cannot expect all the practicing Muslims in a Daarul Kufr to pack up their bags and move to a Daarul Islam. Neither can a government discriminate against its civilians and vulnerable citizens who profess a different faith and push them out of its borders, or still worse shoot them . The bloody partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 is a testimony to this reality.

The call of some politicians in the West who tell their religious minorities to “go back home” is racist and totally unacceptable

There are international protocols, which spell out detailed arrangements for the protection of refugees by host countries but ultimately they have to return to their countries of origin when peace is restored. There are also exceptions where people have voluntarily migrated to countries where they had work visas or previous connection on the basis of family, birth or naturalisation but certainly it cannot be cited as a trend or even a possibility for Hijrah. Moreover, nearly all the Daarul Islam counties have immigration laws, which discourage overseas Muslims to take residence in their countries.

This discussion becomes totally irrelevant for the 2nd or 3rd or in certain cases many generations of Muslims living in Daarul Kufr where they are born and bred and for all practical purposes they have no other home except where they live today. Migrating to another Daarul Kufr or Daarul Fisq is pointless because in certain situations their residence in Daarul Kufr may have far better chances to practice one’s religion than in any other Daarul Kufr or Daarul Fisq. In some of these countries the social values and norms may have close parallels with Islamic manners, ethics and morality. Assuming that at some point some of the Daarul Kufr countries become Daarul Harb countries for the local Muslims, the requirement of Hijra will be exempted for them under condition 3 above. The whole argument about Hijrah and different Daars becomes irrelevant today except when it is applied in a limited sense within the internal boundaries of a country where Muslims are living alongside citizens of other religions. The Google definition or Wikipedia notes about Daarul Aman and Daarul Herb are therefore more for academic discussion than any practical relevance.

NOTES
1. There are two views among scholars on the validity of the requirement to migrate from a place of shirk and sin to a place of peace and obedience to Allah for preserving the faith (called Hijrah). The first view, held by some Hanafi scholars, is that the rule was valid only until the conquest of Makkah. The second view, held by the majority of scholars including Ahnaaf, and including Ibn Jahr, Ibn Qadama, Ibn Al Arabi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Al Qaiyem, Shokani, Mohammad bin Ibraheem and Ibn Baaz is that the rule is still valid for every Muslim who lives in Daarul Harb having the same characteristics as the pre-Islamic Makkah. The prevalent view today is that Hijrah may become necessary if circumstances prevent a Muslim from practicing his/her faith freely in a country where he/she presently lives to a country where these restrictions no longer apply.

2. Daar is singular noun. The plural of Daar in Arabic is Adyaar. When the conjunction ul (English meaning, of) is added as suffix to the word Daar, it means ‘the house of’.

3. In certain schools of thought in Islam, the requirement of a just and honest ruler is so fundamental that the congregational 2-rakat prayers replacing the Zohar Salat on Fridays is suspended until this condition is satisfied in a Muslim society.

4. Myanmar has attempted to flout the universal principle of fundamental freedoms for all citizens by denying citizenship rights to the Rohingyas in the Arakan. The Rohingyas are predominantly Muslims and have been persecuted in Myanmar on the basis of their faith and ethnicity.

5. The largest genocide after Holocaust on the basis of religion was that of Bosnian Muslims during 1991-1995 in which more than 100,000 persons, mostly men aged between 25-35 were mercilessly killed by the Serbian military. Since then the UN Peace Keeping Operations have undergone major change and big powers are obliged to act under the principle of Responsibility to Act. This was successfully demonstrated in the Kosovo war in 1997-1998.

Natural Disasters

This verse from Surah Alankaboot in the Holy Quran has always made me think how true is the word of Allah that after so much advancement in science and technology we have not been able to find a way to escape the following threats to human life :

فَكُلًّا أَخَذۡنَا بِذَنۢبِهِۦۖ فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهِ حَاصِبٗا وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَخَذَتۡهُ ٱلصَّيۡحَةُ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ خَسَفۡنَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَغۡرَقۡنَاۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَظۡلِمَهُمۡ وَلَٰكِن كَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ
سوره العنكبوت ايه ٣٨

Translation
“And We punished each one of them for their sins: some We struck with a violent storm; some were overcome by a sudden blast; some We made the earth swallow; and some We drowned. It was not God who wronged them; they wronged themselves.”

Commentary:
1. Life is a gift from God on which humans have no control. It is Allah Almighty alone who gives life and who takes away life.
2. What we know already is that there are two ways of dying: sole death by reaching the end of tunnel (old age) or by accident or illness when life is cut short; and collective death as in an explosion or earthquake or food.
3) In this verse Allah says there is another type of death, which is the result (punishment) of a cause (excess of sins). Allah gives the examples of certain condemned nations and individuals who died as a result of four deadly natural phenomenon:

1-Death by hurricane or storm (as visited upon the nation of Prophet Lot)
2-Death by explosion as visited upon Samood, the nation of Prophet Swaleh.
3-Death by the movement of earth (as for Quorah), and
4-Death by flood (as for the nation of Noah and Pharaoh).

Experts agree that while science helps us to predict natural disasters and gives us time to prepare for them, these cannot be totally prevented from happening because this is where the power of man stops and the power God becomes manifest.
SubhanAllah.

اردو ترجمہ: آخر کار ہر ایک کو ہم نے اس کے گناہ میں پکڑا، پھر ان میں سے کسی پر ہم نے پتھراؤ کرنے والی ہوا بھیجی، اور کسی کو ایک زبردست دھماکے نے آ لیا، اور کسی کو ہم نے زمین میں دھسا دیا، اور کسی کو غرق کر دیا اللہ اُن پر ظلم کرنے والا نہ تھا، مگر وہ خود ہی اپنے اوپر ظلم کر رہے تھے

If we look around us, we see that death has become so frequent and so cheap. The person who dies in such explosions does not know for what fault why he/she got killed; and the person who kills does not know why he killed others. There are explosions, climate change related freak natural disasters, seismic plates shifting on lands which are heavily built up on surface and wars and conflicts which are causing massive misery and shifting of populations. These are also times when the rules of morality and decency are fast breaking down. Places of worship are empty of people, and faith is split up in different religions, sects and communal groups . Man is materially, socially and spiritually insecure.

May Allah save us from His wrath and displeasure. Ameen.

Signs of the Hour

The Signs Before the Day of Judgement.doc

By Ibn Katheer RA

Accountability of Wealth and Blessings

Please disregard the comic nature of the above video but do watch it in the overall context of the meaning of Surah Al-Takathur [Chapter 102] of the Holy Quran which is recited in the video clip by the ‘teacher’ holding the cane.  It conveys a very important message to Muslims about accountability of wealth and blessings.

The video clip underlines a very important warning given in the Holy Quran which we don’t take seriously even when we are reciting this Surah in our prayers. In our life we spend all our time making money and adding to our assets one after another and still we are never satiated until our last breath. We usurp, haggle, bargain, miscalculate, manipulate, hoard, cheat, lie and exploit others for adding to our portfolio of investments and wealth. Ironically, from the mountain of our wealth we use very little on ourselves. We enjoy countless blessings of Allah such as freedom, intellect, sound body and mind, good health, company of good family, relations and friends, fresh air, sweet water and precious minerals, peace and security, our cattle, belongings and provisions, good food, cars and houses, good lineage, status and position in society. These are things about which Allah will question us when we approach our death  how we spent His blessings.

Truly, we need to be awakened even if it takes a good thrashing by cane to wake up while we are still alive to remember that everything we take for granted, we possess or own, spend or eat, enjoy or take pride in will be placed before us as an accountable asset to be answered for and take responsibility. The repetition of the Ayahs كلا سوف تعلمون ، ثم كلا سوف تعلمون  means that surely the accountability for the blessings bestowed on us by the Great and Glorious Lord will start right away as our last breath draws close when the oxygen mask is placed on our nose and several machines are clicking to check our heart and lung function and monitor blood minerals in the ICU of a hospital or bed of an ambulance, with perhaps an NG tube shoved down our stomach to provide artificial feeding.

This Surah also clarifies the doubt what will happen to a dead body and soul during the period between a person’s death and the Final Day of Judgement, for commentators have  translated

لترون الجحيم  as evidence of the torment of grave after death.

For an Arabic commentary of this Surah by some well known Mufassireen of Quran, please see the below.

تَفْسِيرُ سُورَةِ التَّكَاثُرِ

وَهِيَ مَكِّيَّةٌ.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

القول في تأويل قوله جل ثناؤه وتقدست أسماؤه: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ (١) حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ (٢) كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ (٣) ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ (٤) كَلا لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عِلْمَ الْيَقِينِ (٥) لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ (٦) ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ (٧) ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ (٨) ﴾ .

يقول تعالى ذكره: ألهاكم أيها الناس المباهاة بكثرة المال والعدد عن طاعة ربكم، وعما ينجيكم من سخطه عليكم.

وبنحو الذي قلنا في ذلك قال أهل التأويل.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثنا بشر، قال: ثنا يزيد، قال: ثنا سعيد، عن قتادة ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ قال: كانوا يقولون: نحن أكثر من بني فلان، ونحن أعدّ من بني فلان، وهم كلّ يوم يتساقطون إلى آخرهم، والله ما زالوا كذلك حتى صاروا من أهل القبور كلهم.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن عبد الأعلى، قال: ثنا ابن ثور، عن معمر، عن قتادة ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ قالوا: نحن أكثر من بني فلان، وبنو فلان أكثر من بني فلان، ألهاهم ذلك حتى ماتوا ضلالا.

ورُوي عن النبيّ ﷺ كلام يدلّ على أن معناه التكاثر بالمال.

* ذكر الخبر بذلك:

  ⁕ حدثنا أبو كُرَيب، قال: ثنا وكيع، عن هشام الدستوائي، عن قتادة، عن مطرِّف بن عبد الله بن الشِّخِّير، عن أبيه أنه انتهى إلى النبيّ ﷺ، وهو يقرأ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ قال: “ابن آدم، ليس لك من مال إلا ما أكلت فأفنيت، أو لبِست فأبليت، أو تصدّقت فأمضيت”.

  ⁕ حدثنا محمد بن خلف العسقلاني، قال: ثنا آدم، قال: ثنا حماد بن سلمة، عن ثابت البناني، عن أنس بن مالك، عن أُبيّ بن كعب، قال: كنا نرى أن هذا الحديث من القرآن: “لو أن لابن آدم واديين من مال، لتمنى واديا ثالثا، ولا يملأ جوف ابن آدم إلا التراب، ثم يتوب الله على من تاب” حتى نزلت هذه السورة: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ إلى آخرها. وقوله ﷺ بعقب قراءته “ألهاكم” ليس لك من مالك إلا كذا وكذا، ينبئ أن معنى ذلك عنده: ألهاكم التكاثر: المال.

* * *

وقوله: ﴿حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾

يعني: حتى صرتم إلى المقابر فدفنتم فيها؛ وفي هذا دليل على صحة القول بعذاب القبر، لأن الله تعالى ذكره، أخبر عن هؤلاء القوم الذين ألهاهم التكاثر، أنهم سيعلمون ما يلقون إذا هم زاروا القبور وعيدا منه لهم وتهدّدا.

وبنحو الذي قلنا في ذلك قال أهل التأويل.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثنا أبو كُرَيب، قال: ثنا ابن عطية، عن قيس، عن حجاج، عن المنهال، عن زِرّ، عن عليّ، قال: كنا نشكّ في عذاب القبر، حتى نزلت هذه الآية: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ … إلى: ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ في عذاب القبر.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا حكام بن سلم، عن عنبسة، عن ابن أبي ليلى، عن المنهال، عن زِرّ، عن عليّ، قال: نزلت ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ في عذاب القبر.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا حكام، عن عمرو، عن الحجاج، عن المنهال بن عمرو، عن زِرّ، عن عليّ، قال: ما زلنا نشكّ في عذاب القبر، حتى نزلت: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ .

* * *

وقوله: ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾

يعني تعالى ذكره بقوله: كلا ما هكذا ينبغي أن تفعلوا، أن يُلْهِيَكُم التكاثر.

* * *

وقوله: ﴿سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾

يقول جلّ ثناؤه: سوف تعلمون إذا زرتم المقابر، أيها الذين ألهاهم التكاثر، غبّ فعلكم، واشتغالكم بالتكاثر في الدنيا عن طاعة الله ربكم.

* * *

وقوله: ﴿ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾

يقول: ثم ما هكذا ينبغي أن تفعلوا أن يلهيكم التكاثر بالأموال، وكثرة العدد، سوف تعلمون إذا زرتم المقابر، ما تلقون إذا أنتم زرتموها، من مكروه اشتغالكم عن طاعة ربكم بالتكاثر. وكرّر قوله: ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ مرتين، لأن العرب إذا أرادت التغليظ في التخويف والتهديد كرّروا الكلمة مرتين.

ورُوي عن الضحاك في ذلك ما:-

  ⁕ حدثنا به ابن حميد، قال: ثنا مهران، عن أبي سنان، عن ثابت، عن الضحاك ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ قال: الكفار ﴿ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ قال: المؤمنون. وكذلك كان يقرأها.

* * *

وقوله: ﴿كَلا لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عِلْمَ الْيَقِينِ﴾

يقول تعالى ذكره: ما هكذا ينبغي أن تفعلوا، أن يلهيكم التكاثر أيها الناس، لو تعلمون أيها الناس علما يقينا، أن الله باعثكم يوم القيامة من بعد مماتكم من قبوركم ما ألهاكم التكاثر عن طاعة الله ربكم، ولسارعتم إلى عبادته، والانتهاء إلى أمره ونهيه، ورفض الدنيا إشفاقا على أنفسكم من عقوبته.

وبنحو الذي قلنا في ذلك قال أهل التأويل.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثنا بشر، قال: ثنا يزيد، قال: ثنا سعيد، عن قتادة ﴿كَلا لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عِلْمَ الْيَقِينِ﴾ كنا نحدَّث أن علم اليقين: أن يعلم أنَّ الله باعثه بعد الموت.

* * *

وقوله: ﴿لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ﴾

اختلفت القراء في قراءة ذلك؛ فقرأته قراء الأمصار: ﴿لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ﴾ بفتح التاء من ﴿لَتَرَوُنَّ﴾ في الحرفين كليهما، وقرأ ذلك الكسائي بضم التاء من الأولى، وفتحها من الثانية.

والصواب عندنا في ذلك الفتح فيهما كليهما، لإجماع الحجة عليه. وإذا كان ذلك كذلك، فتأويل الكلام: لترونّ أيها المشركون جهنم يوم القيامة، ثم لترونها عيانا لا تغيبون عنها.

  ⁕ حدثني محمد بن سعد، قال: ثني أبي، قال: ثني عمي، قال: ثني أبي، عن أبيه، عن ابن عباس قوله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ﴾ يعني: أهل الشرك.

* * *

وقوله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾

يقول: ثم ليسألنكم الله عزّ وجلّ عن النعيم الذي كنتم فيه في الدنيا: ماذا عملتم فيه، من أين وصلتم إليه، وفيم أصبتموه، وماذا عملتم به.

واختلف أهل التأويل في ذلك النعيم ما هو؟ فقال بعضهم: هو الأمن والصحة.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثني عباد بن يعقوب، قال. ثنا محمد بن سليمان، عن ابن أبي ليلى، عن الشعبيّ، عن ابن مسعود، في قوله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: الأمن والصحة.

  ⁕ حدثنا أبو كُرَيب، قال: ثنا حفص، عن ابن أبي ليلى، عن الشعبيّ، عن عبد الله، مثله.

  ⁕ حدثني علي بن سعيد الكنديّ، قال: ثنا محمد بن مروان، عن ليث، عن مجاهد ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: الأمن والصحة.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن بشار، قال: ثنا أبو عاصم. قال: ثنا سفيان، قال: بلغني في قوله: ﴿لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: الأمن والصحة.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا مهران، عن إسماعيل بن عياش، عن عبد العزيز بن عبد الله، قال: سمعت الشعبيّ يقول: النعيم المسئول عنه يوم القيامة: الأمن والصحة.

  ⁕ قال: ثنا مهران، عن خالد الزيات، عن ابن أبي ليلى، عن عامر الشعبيّ، عن ابن مسعود، مثله.

  ⁕ قال: ثنا مهران، عن سفيان ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: الأمن والصحة.

وقال آخرون: بل معنى ذلك: ثم لَيُسْئَلُنّ يومئذ عما أنعم الله به عليهم مما وهب لهم من السمع والبصر وصحة البدن.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثني عليّ، قال: ثنا أبو صالح، قال: ثني معاوية، عن عليّ، عن ابن عباس، في قوله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: النعيم: صحة الأبدان والأسماع والأبصار، قال: يسأل الله العباد فيم استعملوها، وهو أعلم بذلك منهم، وهو قوله: ﴿إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولا﴾ .

  ⁕ حدثني إسماعيل بن موسى الفَزاريُّ، قال: أخبرنا عمر بن شاكر، عن الحسن قال: كان يقول في قوله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: السمع والبصر، وصحة البدن.

وقال آخرون: هو العافية.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثني عباد بن يعقوب، قال: ثنا نوح بن درّاج، عن سعد بن طريف، عن أبي جعفر ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: العافية.

وقال آخرون: بل عُنِي بذلك: بعض ما يطعمه الإنسان، أو يشربه.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن بشار، قال ثنا عبد الرحمن، قال: ثنا سفيان، عن بكير بن عتيق، قال: رأيت سعيد بن جُبَير أُبِيَ بشربة عسل، فشربها، وقال: هذا النعيم الذي تُسألون عنه.

  ⁕ حدثني عليّ بن سهل الرملي، قال: ثنا الحسن بن بلال، قال: ثنا حماد بن سلمة، عن عَمَّار بن أبي عمار، قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: أتانا النبيّ ﷺ وأبو بكر وعمرُ رضي الله عنهما، فأطعمناهم رطبا، وسقيناهم ماء، فقال رسول الله ﷺ: “هَذَا مِنَ النَّعِيمِ الَّذِي تُسألون عَنْهُ”.

  ⁕ حدثنا جابر بن الكرديّ، قال: ثنا يزيد بن هارون، قال: ثنا حماد بن سلمة، عن عمار بن أبي عمار، قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: أتانا النبيّ ﷺ، فذكر نحوه.

  ⁕ حدثني الحسن بن عليّ الصُدائي، قال: ثنا الوليد بن القاسم، عن يزيد بن كيسان، عن أبي حازم، عن أبي هريرة، قال: بينما أبو بكر وعمر رضى الله عنهما جالسان، إذ جاء النبيّ ﷺ، فقال: “ما أجْلَسَكُما ها هُنا؟ ” قالا الجوع، قال: “وَالَّذِي بَعَثَنِي بالْحَقّ ما أخْرَجَنِي غَيرُهُ”، فانطلقوا حتى أتوا بيت رجل من الأنصار، فاستقبلتهم المرأة، فقال لها النبيّ ﷺ: “أيْنَ فُلانُ؟ ” فقالت: ذهب يستعذب لنا ماء، فجاء صاحبهم يحمل قربته، فقال: مرحبا، ما زار العباد شيء أفضل من شيء زارني اليوم، فعلق قربته بكَرَب نخلة، وانطلق فجاءهم بعِذْق، فقال النبي ﷺ: “ألا كُنْتَ اجْتَنَيْتَ؟ ” فقال: أحببت أن تكونوا الذين تختارون على أعينكم، ثم أخذ الشفرة، فقال النبيّ ﷺ: “إيَّاكَ والْحَلُوبَ”، فذبح لهم يومئذ، فأكلوا، فقال النبيّ ﷺ: “لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَنْ هَذَا يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ، أخْرَجَكُمْ مِنْ بُيُوتِكُمُ الجُوعُ، فَلَمْ تَرْجِعُوا حتى أصَبْتُمْ هَذَا، فَهَذَا مِنَ النَّعِيمِ”.

  ⁕ حدثنا أبو كُرَيب، قال: ثنا يحيى بن أبي بكير، قال ثنا شيبان بن عبد الرحمن، عن عبد الملك بن عُمَير، عن أبي سَلَمة، عن أبي هريرة، قال: قال النبيّ ﷺ لأبي بكر وعمر: “انْطَلِقُوا بِنا إلى أبي الهَيْثَم بنِ التَّيَّهانِ الأنْصَارِيّ”، فانطلق بهم إلى ظلّ حديقته، فبسط لهم بساطا، ثم انطلق إلى نخلة، فجاء بِقِنْوٍ، فقال رسول الله ﷺ: “فَهَلا تَنَقَّيْتَ لَنا مِنْ رُطَبِهِ؟ ” فقال: أردت أن تَخَيَّرُوا من رطبه وبُسره، فأكلوا وشربول من الماء؛ فلما فرغ رسول الله ﷺ، قال: “هَذَا وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيدهِ مِنَ النَّعِيمِ، الَّذِي أنْتُمْ فِيهِ مَسْئُولُونَ عَنْهُ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ، هَذَا الظِّلُّ البارِدُ، والرُّطَبُ البارِدُ، عَلَيْهِ الماءُ البارِدُ”.

  ⁕ حدثني صالح بن مسمار المروزي، قال: ثنا آدم بن أبي إياس، قال: ثنا شيبان، قال: ثنا عبد الملك بن عمير، عن أبي سلمة بن عبد الرحمن، عن أبي هريرة، عن رسول الله ﷺ بنحوه، إلا أنه قال في حديثه: “ظِلٌّ بارِدٌ، ورُطَبٌ بارِدٌ، وَماءٌ بارِدٌ”.

  ⁕ حدثنا عليّ بن عيسى البزاز، قال: ثنا سعيد بن سليمان، عن حشرج بن نباتة، قال: ثنا أبو بصيرة عن أبي عسيب، مولى رسول الله ﷺ، قال: مرّ النبيّ ﷺ حتى دخل حائطا لبعض الأنصار، فقال لصاحب الحائط: “أطْعِمْنا بُسْرًا”، فجاء بعذق فوضعه، فأكل رسول الله ﷺ وأصحابه، ثم دعا بماء بارد فشرب، فقال: “لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَنْ هَذَا يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ”، فأخذ عمر العذق، فضرب به الأرض حتى تناثر البسر، ثم قال: يا رسول الله، إنا لمسئولون عن هذا؟ قال: “نَعَمْ، إلا مِنْ كِسْرَةٍ يُسَدُّ بِها جَوْعَةٌ، أوْ حُجْرٌ يُدْخَلُ فِيه مِنَ الحَرِّ والقَرِّ”.

  ⁕ حدثني سعيد بن عمرو السكونيّ، قال: ثنا بقية، عن حشرج بن نباتة، قال: حدثني أبو بصيرة، عن أبي عسيب مولى رسول الله ﷺ، قال: مرّ بي النبيّ ﷺ، فدعاني وخرجت ومعه أبو بكر وعمر رضى الله عنهما، فدخل حائطا لبعض الأنصار، فأُتِيَ بِبُسْرِ عِذْق منه، فوُضِع بين يديه، فأكل هو وأصحابه، ثم دعا بما بارد، فشرب، ثم قال: “لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَنْ هَذَا يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ”، فقال عمر: عن هذا يوم القيامة؟ فقال: “نَعَمْ، إلا مِنْ ثَلاثَةٍ: خِرْقَةٍ كَفَّ بِها عَوْرَتَهُ، أو كِسْرَةٍ سَدُّ بِها جَوْعَتَةُ، أوْ جُحْرٍ يَدْخُلُ فِيهِ مِنَ الحَرِّ والقَرّ”.

  ⁕ حدثني يعقوب، قال: ثنا ابن عُلية، عن الجريريّ، عن أبي بصيرة، قال: أكل رسول الله ﷺ وناس من أصحابه أكلة من خبز شعير لم يُنْخَل، بلحم سمين، ثم شربوا من جدول، فقال: “هذا كله من النعيم الذي تُسْأَلُونَ عنه يوم القيامة”.

  ⁕ حدثنا مجاهد بن موسى، قال: ثنا يزيد، قال: ثنا محمد بن عمرو، عن صفوان بن سليم، عن محمد بن محمود بن لبيد، قال: “لما نزلت ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ فقرأها حتى بلغ: ﴿لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قالوا: يا رسول الله، عن أيّ النعيم نسأل، وإنما هو الأسودان: الماء، والتمر، وسيوفنا على عواتقنا، والعدوّ حاضر! قال: “إن ذلكَ سَيَكُونُ”.

  ⁕ حدثني يعقوب بن إبراهيم والحسين بن عليّ الصدائي، قالا ثنا شبابة بن سوّار، قال: ثني عبد الله بن العلاء أبو رَزِين الشامي، قال: ثنا الضحاك بن عَرْزَم، قال: سمعت أبا هريرة يقول: قال: رسول الله ﷺ: “إنَّ أولَ ما يُسْأَلُ عَنْهُ العَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنَ النَّعِيمِ أنْ يُقَالَ لَهُ: ألَم نُصِحَّ لَك جِسْمَكَ، وَتُروَ مِنَ الماءِ البارِدِ”؟.

  ⁕ حدثني يعقوب، قال: ثنا ابن عُلَية، قال: ثنا ليث، عن مجاهد، قال: قال أبو معمر عبد الله بن سخبرة: ما أصبح أحد بالكوفة إلا ناعماً، إن أهونهم عيشا الذي يأكل خبز البرّ، ويشرب ماء الفرات، ويستظلّ من الظلّ، وذلك من النعيم.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا مهران، عن إسماعيل بن عياش، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحارث التميميّ، عن ثابت البناني، عن النبيّ ﷺ قال: “النَّعِيم: المَسْئُولُ عَنْهُ يَوْمَ القِيامَةِ: كِسْرَةٌ تُقَوّيهِ، وَماءٌ يُرْوِيهِ، وَثَوْبٌ يُوَارِيهِ”.

  ⁕ قال: ثنا مهران، عن إسماعيل بن عياش، عن بشر بن عبد الله بن بشار، قال: سمعت بعض أهل يمن يقول: سمعت أبا أُمامة يقول: النعيم المسئول عنه يوم القيامة: خبز البرّ، والماء العذب.

  ⁕ قال: ثنا مهران، عن سفيان، عن بكير بن عتيق العامري، قال: أُتِيَ سعيد بن جُبير بشَربة عسل، فقال: أما إن هذا النعيم الذي نسأل عنه يوم القيامة ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ .

  ⁕ حدثنا أبو كُرَيب، قال: ثنا وكيع، عن سفيان، عن بكير بن عتيق، عن سعيد بن جُبير، أنه أتي بشربة عسل، فقال: هذا من النعيم الذي تُسألون عنه.

وقال آخرون: ذلك كلّ ما التذّه الإنسان في الدنيا من شيء.

* ذكر من قال ذلك:

  ⁕ حدثني محمد بن عمرو، قال: ثنا أبو عاصم، قال: ثنا عيسى؛ وحدثني الحارث، قال: ثنا الحسن، قال: ثنا ورقاء، جميعا عن ابن أبي نجيح، عن مجاهد، في قول الله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: عن كل شيء من لذّة الدنيا.

  ⁕ حدثنا بشر، قال: ثنا يزيد، قال: ثنا سعيد، عن قتادة، قوله: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ إن الله عزّ وجل سائل كلّ عبد عما استودعه من نِعَمه وحقه.

  ⁕ حدثنا ابن عبد الأعلى، قال: ثنا ابن ثور، عن معمر، عن قتادة ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قال: إن الله تعالى ذكره سائل كلّ ذي نعمة فيما أنعم عليه.

وكان الحسن وقتادة يقولان: ثلاث لا يُسأَل عنهنّ ابن آدم، وما خلاهنّ فيه المسألة والحساب إلا ما شاء الله: كسوة يواري بها سوْأته، وكسرة يشدّ بها صلبه، وبيت يظله.

والصواب من القول في ذلك: أن يقال: إن الله أخبر أنه سائل هؤلاء القوم عن النعيم، ولم يخصص في خبره أنه سائلهم عن نوع من النعيم دون نوع، بل عمّ بالخبر في ذلك عن الجميع، فهو سائلهم كما قال عن جميع النعيم، لا عن بعض دون بعض.

آخر تفسير سورة ألهاكم

﴿ألْهاكُمْ﴾ شَغَلَكُمْ عَنْ طاعَة اللَّه ﴿التَّكاثُر﴾ التَّفاخُر بِالأَمْوالِ والأَوْلاد والرِّجال

* * *

يَقُولُ تَعَالَى: شَغَلَكُمْ حُبُّ الدُّنْيَا وَنَعِيمُهَا وَزَهْرَتُهَا عَنْ طَلَبِ الْآخِرَةِ وَابْتِغَائِهَا، وَتَمَادَى بِكُمْ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى جَاءَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ وَزُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ، وَصِرْتُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا؟!

قَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ يَحْيَى الوَقار الْمِصْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الدَّايِمِ، عَنِ ابْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: ” ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ عَنِ الطَّاعَةِ، ﴿حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ” .

وَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ الْبَصْرِيُّ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ.

وَفِي صَحِيحِ الْبُخَارِيِّ، فِي “الرَّقَاقِ” مِنْهُ: وَقَالَ لَنَا أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ: حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ قَالَ: كُنَّا نَرَى هَذَا مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ حَتَّى نَزَلَتْ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ يَعْنِي: “لَوْ كَانَ لِابْنِ آدَمَ وادٍ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ”.

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ: سَمِعْتُ قَتَادَةَ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ مُطْرِّف -يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَبْدِ الله بن الشخير-عن أبيه قَالَ: انْتَهَيْتُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يَقُولُ: ” ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ يَقُولُ ابْنُ آدَمَ: مَالِي مَالِي. وَهَلْ لَكَ مِنْ مَالِكَ إِلَّا مَا أَكَلْتَ فَأَفْنَيْتَ، أَوْ لَبِسْتَ فَأَبْلَيْتَ، أَوْ تَصَدَّقْتَ فَأَمْضَيْتَ؟ “.

وَرَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ، مِنْ طَرِيقِ شُعْبَةَ، بِهِ .

وَقَالَ مُسْلِمٌ فِي صَحِيحِهِ: حَدَّثَنَا سُوِيدُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ مَيْسَرَةَ، عَنِ الْعَلَاءِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “يَقُولُ الْعَبْدُ: مَالِي مَالِي؟ وَإِنَّمَا لَهُ مِنْ مَالِهِ ثَلَاثٌ: مَا أَكَلَ فَأَفْنَى، أَوْ لَبِسَ فَأَبْلَى، أَوْ تَصَدَّقَ فَاقْتَنَى وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ فَذَاهِبٌ وَتَارِكُهُ لِلنَّاسِ”. تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ مسلم .

وَقَالَ الْبُخَارِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا الحُمَيدي، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حَزْمٍ، سَمِعَ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ يَقُولُ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “يَتْبَعُ الْمَيِّتَ ثلاثةٌ، فَيَرْجِعُ اثْنَانِ وَيَبْقَى مَعَهُ وَاحِدٌ: يَتْبَعُهُ أَهْلُهُ وَمَالُهُ وَعَمَلُهُ، فَيَرْجِعُ أَهْلُهُ وَمَالُهُ، وَيَبْقَى عَمَلُهُ”.

وَكَذَا رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ، مِنْ حَدِيثِ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ، بِهِ .

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا قَتَادَةُ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ: أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ﷺ قَالَ: “يَهْرَمُ ابْنُ آدَمَ وَتَبْقَى مِنْهُ اثْنَتَانِ: الْحِرْصُ وَالْأَمَلُ”. أَخْرَجَاهُ فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ .

وَذَكَرَ الْحَافِظُ ابْنُ عَسَاكِرَ، فِي تَرْجَمَةِ الْأَحْنَفِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ -وَاسْمُهُ الضَّحَّاكُ-أَنَّهُ رَأَى فِي يَدِ رَجُلٍ دِرْهَمًا فَقَالَ: لِمَنْ هَذَا الدِّرْهَمُ؟ فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ: لِي. فَقَالَ: إِنَّمَا هُوَ لَكَ إِذَا أَنْفَقْتَهُ فِي أَجْرٍ أَوِ ابْتِغَاءِ شُكْرٍ. ثُمَّ أَنْشَدَ الْأَحْنَفُ مُتَمَثِّلًا قَوْلَ الشَّاعِرِ:

أنتَ لِلْمَالِ إِذَا أمسكتَه … فَإِذَا أنفقتَه فالمالُ لَكْ …

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْأَشَجُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ قَالَ: صَالِحُ بْنُ حَيَّانَ حَدَّثَنِي عَنِ ابْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ فِي قَوْلِهِ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ قَالَ: نَزَلَتْ فِي قَبِيلَتَيْنِ مِنْ قَبَائِلِ الْأَنْصَارِ، فِي بَنِي حَارِثَةَ وَبَنِي الْحَارِثِ، تَفَاخَرُوا وَتَكَاثَرُوا، فَقَالَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا: فِيكُمْ مثلُ فُلَانِ بْنِ فُلَانٍ، وَفُلَانٍ؟ وَقَالَ الْآخَرُونَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، تَفَاخَرُوا بِالْأَحْيَاءِ، ثُمَّ قَالُوا: انْطَلِقُوا بِنَا إِلَى الْقُبُورِ. فَجَعَلَتْ إِحْدَى الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ تَقُولُ: فِيكُمْ مِثْلُ فُلَانٍ؟ يُشِيرُونَ إِلَى الْقَبْرِ -وَمِثْلُ فُلَانٍ؟ وَفَعَلَ الْآخَرُونَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيمَا رَأَيْتُمْ عِبْرَةٌ وَشُغْلٌ.

وَقَالَ قَتَادَةُ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ كَانُوا يَقُولُونَ نَحْنُ أَكْثَرُ مَنْ بَنِي فُلَانٍ وَنَحْنُ أعَدُّ مَنْ بَنِي فُلَانٍ، وَهُمْ كُلُّ يَوْمٍ يَتَسَاقَطُونَ إِلَى آخِرِهِمْ، وَاللَّهِ مَا زَالُوا كَذَلِكَ حَتَّى صَارُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُبُورِ كُلُّهُمْ.

وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ بِقَوْلِهِ: ﴿زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ أَيْ: صِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهَا وَدُفِنْتُمْ فِيهَا، كَمَا جَاءَ فِي الصَّحِيحِ: أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلم دَخَلَ عَلَى رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ يَعُودُهُ، فَقَالَ: “لَا بَأْسَ، طَهُورٌ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ”. فَقَالَ: قُلْتَ: طَهُور؟! بَلْ هِيَ حُمَّى تَفُورُ، عَلَى شَيْخٍ كَبِيرٍ، تُزيره الْقُبُورَ! قَالَ: “فَنَعَم إِذًا” .

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو زُرْعَة، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الْأَصْبَهَانِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا حَكَّامُ بْنُ سَلْمٍ الرَّازِيُّ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ أَبِي قَيْسٍ، عَنْ الْحَجَّاجِ، عَنِ المنْهال، عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْش، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ قَالَ: مَا زِلْنَا نَشُكُّ فِي عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ حَتَّى نَزَلَتْ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾

وَرَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ عَنْ أَبِي كُرَيب، عَنْ حَكَّام بْنِ سَلْمٍ [بِهِ] وَقَالَ: غَرِيبٌ .

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا سَلَمَةُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ العُرضي حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْمَلِيحِ الرَّقِّيُّ، عَنْ مَيْمُونِ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ: كُنْتُ جَالِسًا عِنْدَ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، فَقَرَأَ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ فَلَبِثَ هُنَيْهَةً فَقَالَ: يَا مَيْمُونُ، مَا أَرَى الْمَقَابِرَ إِلَّا زِيَارَةً، وَمَا لِلزَّائِرِ بُدٌّ مِنْ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ.

قَالَ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ: يَعْنِي أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ -إِلَى جَنَّةٍ أَوْ نَارٍ. وَهَكَذَا ذُكر أَنَّ بعضَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَمِعَ رَجُلًا يَتْلُو هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ: ﴿حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ﴾ فَقَالَ: بُعثَ الْيَوْمَ ورَب الْكَعْبَةِ. أَيْ: إِنَّ الزَّائِرَ سَيَرْحَلُ مِنْ مَقَامِهِ ذَلِكَ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ.

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وَقَوْلُهُ: ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ قَالَ الْحَسَنُ الْبَصْرِيُّ: هَذَا وَعِيدٌ بَعْدَ وَعِيدٍ.

وَقَالَ الضَّحَّاكُ: ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ يَعْنِي: الْكُفَّارَ، ﴿ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ يَعْنِي: أَيُّهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ.

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وَقَوْلُهُ: ﴿كَلا لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عِلْمَ الْيَقِينِ﴾ أَيْ: لَوْ عَلِمْتُمْ حَقَّ الْعِلْمِ، لَمَا أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ عَنْ طَلَبِ الدَّارِ الْآخِرَةِ، حَتَّى صِرْتُمْ إِلَى الْمَقَابِرِ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ: ﴿لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ﴾ هَذَا تَفْسِيرُ الْوَعِيدِ الْمُتَقَدِّمُ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ: ﴿كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ تَوعَّدَهم بِهَذَا الْحَالِ، وَهِيَ رُؤْيَةُ النَّارِ الَّتِي إِذَا زَفَرَتْ زَفْرَةً خَرَّ كُلُّ مَلَكٍ مُقَرَّبٍ، وَنَبِيٍّ مُرْسَلٍ عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ، مِنَ الْمَهَابَةِ وَالْعَظَمَةِ وَمُعَايَنَةِ الْأَهْوَالِ، عَلَى مَا جَاءَ بِهِ الْأَثَرُ الْمَرْوِيُّ فِي ذَلِكَ.

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وَقَوْلُهُ: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ أَيْ: ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنْ شُكْرِ مَا أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ، مِنَ الصِّحَّةِ وَالْأَمْنِ وَالرِّزْقِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ. مَا إِذَا قَابَلْتُمْ بِهِ نِعَمَهُ مِنْ شُكْرِهِ وَعِبَادَتِهِ.

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو زُرْعَة، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ يَحْيَى الْخَزَّازُ الْمُقِرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ ابن عِيسَى أَبُو خَالِدٍ الْخَزَّازُ، حَدَّثَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ يَقُولُ: خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ عِنْدَ الظَّهِيرَةِ، فَوَجَدَ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَقَالَ: “مَا أَخْرَجَكَ هَذِهِ السَّاعَةَ؟ ” قَالَ: أَخْرَجَنِي الَّذِي أَخْرَجَكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ. قَالَ: وَجَاءَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ: “مَا أَخْرَجَكَ يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ؟ ” قَالَ أَخْرَجَنِي الَّذِي أَخْرَجَكُمَا. قَالَ: فَقَعَدَ عُمَرُ، وَأَقْبَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ يُحَدِّثُهُمَا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: “هَلْ بِكُمَا مِنْ قُوَّةٍ، تَنْطَلِقَانِ إِلَى هَذَا النَّخْلِ فَتُصِيبَانِ طَعَامًا وَشَرَابًا وَظِلًّا؟ ” قُلْنَا: نَعَمْ. قَالَ: “مُروا بِنَا إِلَى مَنْزِلِ ابْنِ التَّيهان أَبِي الْهَيْثَمِ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ”. قَالَ: فتقدم رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا، فَسَلَّمَ وَاسْتَأْذَنَ -ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ-وَأُمُّ الْهَيْثَمِ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْبَابِ تَسْمَعُ الْكَلَامَ، تُرِيدُ أَنْ يَزِيدَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ مِنَ السَّلَامِ، فَلَمَّا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْصَرِفَ خَرَجَتْ أَمُّ الْهَيْثَمِ تَسْعَى خَلْفَهُمْ، فَقَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَدْ -وَاللَّهِ-سَمِعْتُ تَسْلِيمَكَ، وَلَكِنْ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ تَزِيدَنَا مِنْ سَلَامِكَ. فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “خَيْرًا”. ثُمَّ قَالَ: “أَيْنَ أَبُو الْهَيْثَمِ؟ لَا أَرَاهُ”. قَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، هُوَ قَرِيبٌ ذَهَبَ يَستعذبُ الْمَاءَ، ادْخُلُوا فَإِنَّهُ يَأْتِي السَّاعَةَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ، فَبَسَطَتْ -بِسَاطًا تَحْتَ شَجَرَةٍ، فَجَاءَ أَبُو الْهَيْثَمِ فَفَرِحَ بِهِمْ وَقَرَّتْ عَيْنَاهُ بِهِمْ، فَصَعِدَ عَلَى نَخْلَةٍ فَصَرَمَ لَهُمْ أَعْذَاقًا، فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “حَسْبُكَ يَا أَبَا الْهَيْثَمِ”. قَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، تَأْكُلُونَ مِنْ بُسره، وَمِنْ رُطَبِهِ، وَمِنْ تَذْنُوبه، ثُمَّ أَتَاهُمْ بِمَاءٍ فَشَرِبُوا عَلَيْهِ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “هَذَا مِنَ النَّعِيمِ الَّذِي تُسْأَلُونَ عَنْهُ” هَذَا غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ.

وَقَالَ ابْنُ جَرِيرٍ: حَدَّثَنِي الحُسَين بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الصَّدَائِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ يَزِيدُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: بَيْنَمَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمْرُ جَالِسَانِ، إِذْ جَاءَهُمَا النَّبِيُّ ﷺ فَقَالَ: “مَا أَجْلَسَكُمَا هَاهُنَا؟ ” قَالَا وَالَّذِي بَعَثَكَ بِالْحَقِّ مَا أَخْرَجْنَا مِنْ بُيُوتِنَا إِلَّا الْجُوعُ. قَالَ: “وَالَّذِي بَعَثَنِي بِالْحَقِّ مَا أَخْرَجَنِي غَيْرُهُ”. فَانْطَلَقُوا حَتَّى أَتَوْا بَيْتَ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ، فَاسْتَقْبَلَتْهُمُ الْمَرْأَةُ، فَقَالَ لَهَا النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: “أَيْنَ فُلَانٌ؟ ” فَقَالَتْ: ذَهَبَ يَسْتَعْذِبُ لَنَا مَاءً. فَجَاءَ صَاحِبُهُمْ يَحْمِلُ قِرْبَتَهُ فَقَالَ: مَرْحَبًا، مَا زَارَ الْعِبَادَ شَيْءٌ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ زَارَنِي الْيَوْمَ. فَعَلَّقَ قِرْبَتَهُ بِكَرْبِ نَخْلَةٍ وَانْطَلَقَ فَجَاءَهُمْ بِعِذْقٍ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: “أَلَا كُنْتَ اجْتَنَيْتَ”؟ فَقَالَ: أَحْبَبْتُ أَنْ تَكُونُوا الَّذِينَ تَخْتَارُونَ عَلَى أَعْيُنِكُمْ. ثُمَّ أَخَذَ الشَّفْرَةَ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: “إِيَّاكَ وَالْحَلُوبَ؟ ” فَذَبَحَ لَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ، فَأَكَلُوا. فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: “لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَنْ هَذَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ. أَخْرَجَكُمْ مِنْ بُيُوتِكُمُ الْجُوعُ، فَلَمْ تَرْجِعُوا حَتَّى أَصَبْتُمْ هَذَا، فَهَذَا مِنَ النَّعِيمِ” .

وَرَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ مِنْ حَدِيثِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ كَيْسَانَ، بِهِ وَرَوَاهُ أَبُو يَعْلَى وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ، مِنْ حَدِيثِ الْمُحَارِبِيِّ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عُبيد اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ أُبَيِّ بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ، بِهِ وَقَدْ رَوَاهُ أَهْلُ السُّنَنِ الْأَرْبَعَةِ، مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، بِنَحْوٍ مَنْ هَذَا السِّيَاقِ وَهَذِهِ الْقِصَّةِ .

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا سُرَيج، حَدَّثَنَا حَشْرَجٌ، عَنْ أَبِي نُصرة، عَنْ أبي عسيب -يعني مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -قَالَ: خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ لَيْلًا فَمَرَّ بِي، فَدَعَانِي فَخَرَجْتُ إِلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ مَرَّ بِأَبِي بَكْرٍ فَدَعَاهُ فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ مَرَّ بِعُمَرَ فَدَعَاهُ فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْهِ، فَانْطَلَقَ حَتَّى أَتَى حَائِطًا لِبَعْضِ الْأَنْصَارِ، فَقَالَ لِصَاحِبِ الْحَائِطِ: “أَطْعِمْنَا”. فَجَاءَ بِعذْق فَوَضَعَهُ، فَأَكَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ وَأَصْحَابُهُ، ثُمَّ دَعَا بِمَاءٍ بَارِدٍ فَشَرِبَ، وَقَالَ: “لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَنْ هَذَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ”. قَالَ: فَأَخَذَ عُمَرُ العذْقَ فَضَرَبَ بِهِ الْأَرْضَ، حَتَّى تَنَاثَرَ البُسرُ قَبْلَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّا لَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ هَذَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ؟ قَالَ: “نَعَمْ، إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ: خِرْقَةٌ لَفَّ بِهَا الرَّجُلُ عَوْرَتَهُ، أَوْ كَسْرَةٌ سَدَّ بِهَا جَوْعَتَهُ، أَوْ جُحْرٌ تَدخَّل فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَرِّ وَالْقَرِّ” تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ أَحْمَدُ.

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الصَّمَدِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمَّارٌ، سَمِعْتُ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَقُولُ: أَكَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمْرُ رُطَبًا، وَشَرِبُوا مَاءً، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “هَذَا مِنَ النَّعِيمِ الَّذِي تُسْأَلُونَ عَنْهُ”.

وَرَوَاهُ النَّسَائِيُّ، مِنْ حَدِيثِ حَمَّادِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ [عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ أَبِي عَمَّارٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ] بِهِ .

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ سُلَيْمٍ، عَنْ مَحْمُودِ بْنِ الرَّبِيعِ قَالَ: لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ: ﴿أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ﴾ فَقَرَأَ حَتَّى بَلَغَ: ﴿لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَيِّ نَعِيمٍ نُسأل؟ وَإِنَّمَا هُمَا الْأَسْوَدَانِ الْمَاءُ وَالتَّمْرُ، وَسُيُوفُنَا عَلَى رِقَابِنَا، وَالْعَدُوُّ حَاضِرٌ، فَعَنْ أَيِّ نَعِيمٍ نُسْأَلُ؟ قَالَ أَمَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ سَيَكُونُ” .

وَقَالَ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ، عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، حَدَّثَنَا معاذ بن عبد الله بن حُبَيب، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَمِّهِ قَالَ: كُنَّا فِي مَجْلِسٍ فَطَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا النَّبِيُّ ﷺ وَعَلَى رَأْسِهِ أَثَرُ مَاءٍ، فَقُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، نَرَاكَ طَيِّبَ النَّفْسِ. قَالَ: “أَجَلْ”. قَالَ: ثُمَّ خَاضَ النَّاسُ فِي ذِكْرِ الْغِنَى، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “لَا بَأْسَ بِالْغِنَى لِمَنِ اتَّقَى اللَّهَ، وَالصِّحَّةُ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى اللَّهَ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الْغِنَى، وَطِيبُ النَّفْسِ مِنَ النَّعِيمِ”.

وَرَوَاهُ ابْنُ مَاجَهْ، عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ مَخْلَدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ، بِهِ .

وَقَالَ التِّرْمِذِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شَبَابَةُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْعَلَاءِ، عَنِ الضَّحَّاكِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَرْزَمٍ الْأَشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ يَقُولُ: قَالَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: “إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُسْأَلُ عَنْهُ -يَعْنِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ-الْعَبْدُ مِنَ النَّعِيمِ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَهُ: أَلَمْ نُصِحّ لك جسمك، ونُرْوكَ من الماء البارد؟ “.

تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ التِّرْمِذِيُّ. وَرَوَاهُ ابْنُ حِبَّانَ فِي صَحِيحِهِ، مِنْ طَرِيقِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ زَيْر، بِهِ .

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو زُرْعَة، حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّد، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنِ يَحْيَى بْنِ حَاطِبٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ قَالَ: قَالَ الزُّبَيْرُ: لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ: ﴿ [ثُمَّ] لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، لِأَيِّ نَعِيمٍ نُسْأَلُ عَنْهُ، وَإِنَّمَا هُمَا الْأَسْوَدَانِ التَّمْرُ وَالْمَاءُ؟ قَالَ: “إِنَّ ذَلِكَ سَيَكُونُ”. وَكَذَا رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ، مِنْ حَدِيثِ سُفْيَانَ -هُوَ ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ-بِهِ وَرَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ عَنْهُ وَقَالَ التِّرْمِذِيُّ: حَسَنٌ.

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الظَّهْرَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ الْعَدَنِيُّ، عَنِ الحكم ابن أَبَانٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ قَالَ: لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قَالَتِ الصَّحَابَةُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، وَأَيُّ نَعِيمٍ نَحْنُ فِيهِ، وَإِنَّمَا نَأْكُلُ فِي أَنْصَافِ بُطُونِنَا خُبْزَ الشَّعِيرِ؟ فَأَوْحَى اللَّهُ إِلَى نَبِيِّهِ ﷺ: قُلْ لَهُمْ: أَلَيْسَ تَحْتَذُونَ النِّعَالَ، وَتَشْرَبُونَ الْمَاءَ الْبَارِدَ؟ فَهَذَا مِنَ النَّعِيمِ.

وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو زُرْعَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ الْأَصْبَهَانِيِّ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى -أَظُنُّهُ عَنْ عَامِرٍ-عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ فِي قَوْلِهِ: ﴿ [ثُمَّ] لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قَالَ: “الْأَمْنُ وَالصِّحَّةُ” .

وَقَالَ زَيْدُ بْنُ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ﷺ: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ يَعْنِي: شِبَعَ الْبُطُونِ، وَبَارِدَ الشَّرَابِ، وَظِلَالَ الْمَسَاكِنِ، وَاعْتِدَالَ الْخَلْقِ، وَلَذَّةَ النَّوْمِ. رَوَاهُ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ بِإِسْنَادِهِ الْمُتَقَدِّمِ، عَنْهُ فِي أَوَّلِ السُّورَةِ.

وَقَالَ سَعِيدُ بْنُ جُبَيْرٍ: حَتَّى عَنْ شَرْبَةِ عَسَلٍ. وَقَالَ مُجَاهِدٌ: عَنْ كُلِّ لَذَّةٍ مِنْ لَذَّاتِ الدُّنْيَا. وَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ الْبَصْرِيُّ: نَعِيمُ الْغَدَاءِ وَالْعَشَاءِ، وَقَالَ أَبُو قِلابة: مِنَ النَّعِيمِ أَكْلُ الْعَسَلِ وَالسَّمْنِ بِالْخَبْزِ النَّقِيِّ. وَقَوْلُ مُجَاهِدٍ هَذَا أَشْمَلُ هَذِهِ الْأَقْوَالِ.

وَقَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: ﴿ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ﴾ قَالَ: النَّعِيمُ: صِحَّةُ الْأَبْدَانِ وَالْأَسْمَاعِ وَالْأَبْصَارِ، يَسْأَلُ اللَّهُ الْعِبَادَ فِيمَا اسْتَعْمَلُوهَا، وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِذَلِكَ مِنْهُمْ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: ﴿إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولا﴾ [الْإِسْرَاءِ: ٣٦] .

وَثَبَتَ فِي صَحِيحِ الْبُخَارِيِّ، وَسُنَنِ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ، مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سعيد ابن أَبِي هِنْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وسلم: “نِعْمَتَانِ مَغْبُونٌ فِيهِمَا كَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ: الصِّحَّةُ وَالْفَرَاغُ” .

وَمَعْنَى هَذَا: أَنَّهُمْ مُقَصِّرُونَ فِي شُكْرِ هَاتَيْنِ النِّعْمَتَيْنِ، لَا يَقُومُونَ بِوَاجِبِهِمَا، وَمَنْ لَا يَقُومُ بِحَقِّ مَا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ، فَهُوَ مَغْبُونٌ.

وَقَالَ الْحَافِظُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ الْبَزَّارُ: حَدَّثَنَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الْمَرْوَزِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بن الحسن ابن شَقِيقٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَمْزَةَ، عَنْ لَيْثٍ، عَنْ أَبِي فَزَارَةَ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ الْأَصَمِّ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ: “مَا فَوْقَ الْإِزَارِ، وَظِلُّ الْحَائِطِ، وخُبْز، يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، أَوْ يُسْأَلُ عَنْهُ” ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَا نَعْرِفُهُ إِلَّا بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ.

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا بَهْزٌ وَعَفَّانُ قَالَا حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ -قَالَ عَفَّانُ في حديثه: قال إسحاق ابن عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ﷺ قَالَ: “يَقُولُ اللَّهُ، عَزَّ وَجَلَّ -قَالَ عَفَّانُ: يوم القيامة-: يا بن آدَمَ، حَمَلْتُكَ عَلَى الْخَيْلِ وَالْإِبِلِ، وَزَوَّجْتُكَ النِّسَاءَ، وَجَعَلْتُكَ تَرْبَع وَتَرْأَسُ، فَأَيْنَ شُكْرُ ذَلِكَ؟ ” تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ.

آخِرُ تَفْسِيرِ سُورَةِ “التكاثر” [ولله الحمد والمنة]

 

 

A Model Eid Khutba in Arabic and English

Syed Sharfuddin

In many non-Arabic speaking countries, the Eid khutba is read in Arabic following the wajib  Eid Salat. However, its summary is often delivered in the form of a speech in the local language while the faithful are still arriving for the congregation. This takes away the time for reciting  Takbeerat before the Salah. The speech also conflicts with the requirement of delivering the khutba after the Eid Salat. Many mosques, such as the Regents Park Islamic Centre in London, are experimenting with a bilingual khutba, combining English language with Arabic, with the latter as the core of the khutba. The scope for this adjustment is quite wide and each mosque follows a certain method according to the guidelines provided by its religious leadership.

In the month of Shawaal, 1440 AH, I was travelling in Muscat where I attended the Eid Salat in a mosque located in the municipality of Azaiba. I found the Arabic khutba well drafted and perfectly balanced between the narrative and references from the holy Quran and Sunnah. It sounded perfect for an Eid khutba because its theme was ‘Ease in Worship’. It was most relevant as it was being delivered to the faithful after 30 days of intense ibada of saum, salat, zakat, qiyam, including qiyamul lail, good deeds and charity undertaken in the hot summer of 2019. On return to London, I translated the khutba in working English while retaining the Ayahs of the Holy Quran and Ahadith in Arabic, as read in that khutba.

I believe this hybrid khutba in English and Arabic could be taken as a working model to be read in an English-speaking country at Salat al Eid al Fitr. However, religious interpretations may vary and mosque leaders may not be entirely happy delivering one khutba in two languages simultaneously. In such instances the original Arabic khutba may be read and its text should be translated in the local language and circulated to the congregation to read and take home. The Faisl Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan is following this practice. The original Muscat khutba which I heard is available at the official website of the Ministry of Endowment and Religious Affairs of Oman, https://www.mara.gov.om/jumaa/images/jumaa1440/111.pdf , as well as here {=}

The Model Khutba

ألحمد لله و سبحان الله والله اكبر و اشهد ان لا اله الا الله وحده لا شريك له،
الهم أنت الأول فلس قبلك شئ و أنت الآخر فليس بعدك شئ ،
و أنت الظاهر فلا شئ فوقك، و أنت الباطن فلا شئ دونك،
أنعمت فأوليت، فلك الحمد علي ما وهبت وأعطيت،
واشهد ان محمد عبد الله و رسوله،
صلوات الله و سلامه عليه-

أما بعد، فيا أيها المؤمنون –

Praise be to Allah Subhanuhu wa Taala. We thank Him and Glorify him. Allah is Great. And we testify that Allah is Alone and He has no partner with Him. O Allah, You are the First and there is nothing before You. And You are the Last and there is nothing after You. And You are the Manifest and there is nothing besides You. And You are the Hidden and there is nothing other than You. And all praise is for You for what You have provided us and blessed us. And we testify that Muhammad is the servant and messenger of Allah and may Allah bless him and preserve him.

Dear brothers and sisters
Fear Allah and know that the teachings of the religion of Islam aim at removing difficulty and hardship and establish ease and comfort. The objective of worship is not to provide discomfort beyond human capacity and make Muslims uncomfortable and fatigued. Allah did not bestow the Qur’an on humans to make them unhappy. He does not wish to place any burden on us; He only wishes to cleanse us and perfect His blessings on us, so that we may be thankful.
ما أنزلنا عليك القران لتشق [20:2]

Allah also says
ما يريد الله ليجعل عليكم من حرج ولكن يريد ليطهركم وليتم نعمته عليكم لعلكم تشكرون
[5: 6]

Being our creator, Allah knows that human beings are weak. Allah does not burden us with anything more than we can bear. Neither does Allah impose any obligation on us in worship which we cannot perform. For this reason, Allah has reduced our Salat to only five times a day; fasting to one fixed month and pilgrimage to only once in the lifetime. Allah’s obedience and worship is easy to carry out because Allah wants to lighten our burdens because we have been created weak.
يريد الله ان يخفف عنكم و خلق الإنسان ضعيفا
[3:28]

Dear brothers and sisters
The relationship of man with his Creator is governed by our faith. Islam is a religion of peace, mercy, blessing, balance, enjoining of good and abstinence from evil and falsehood. Our Prophet, may Allah bless him and preserve him said:
اياكم والغلو فى الدين، فانما هلك من كان قبلكم بالغو فى الدين
Our Prophet also said;
ان الدين يسر، ولن يشاد الدين احد الا غلبه، فسددوا و قاربوا و ابشروا

The fact that Allah wants the faithful to have ease and not suffer hardship in their worship is confirmed in the commandment of fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
يُرِيدُ اللّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
[2:185]

Ease and comfort is intrinsic to fasting and even at the end of fasting we are rewarded by Allah not once but thrice: first; at the time of Iftaar when we break our fast with the Rizq provided by Allah and realise its true value in hunger and thirst; second; at the time when we celebrate Eid at the end of the holy month of Ramadan and benefit from Allah’s blessings and forgiveness; and finally; when in the Hereafter Allah will reward those who fasted for Him in submission and prayer. Allah provides us with many opportunities for thanksgiving and forgiveness, only if we are prepared to take these with both hands.

الله اكبر الله اكبر الله اكبر
لا اله الا الله
و الله اكبر و الله الحمد

Dear Muslims
Islam demands total submission to Allah and His commandments which place emphasis on mercy and kindness. Allah does not burden anyone beyond his capacity. Worship does not cause hardship to human beings. Instead, it brings them Allah’s blessings and enhances their faith, self-control, spiritual well-being and happiness. The secret of happiness for the worshippers lies in obedience to Allah and in doing good deeds:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ارْكَعُوا وَاسْجُدُوا وَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَافْعَلُوا الْخَيْرَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
[22:77]

In the context of good deeds and charity, Allah says what is offered in the way of Allah cleans the faithful and allows them to grow in purity:
خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلاَتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ وَاللّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيم
[9:103]

And in the context of Salat, Allah says that regular Salat keeps the faithful away from shameful acts and evil deeds and that the remembrance of Allah is indeed the highest form of intellectual indulgence.
اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاء وَالْمُنكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ
[29:45]

In perfecting His worship, the faithful Muslim achieves great heights in manners and self-control. Our Prophet, may Allah bless him and preserve him was the best personification of good manners: In a Hadith the Prophet is reported to have said:
إنما بعثت الا تمم صالح الأخلاق

Our Prophet prayed to Allah for good manners because guidance comes from no one except Allah; he also sought protection of Allah from evil deeds, for protection comes from no one except Allah. In a Hadith the Prophet is reported to have said:
الهم اهدني لأحسن الأخلاق لا يهدى لأحسنها الا أنت، واصرف عنى سيئها لا يصرف عني سيىها الا أنت

الله اكبر الله اكبر الله اكبر
لا اله الا الله
و الله اكبر و الله الحمد

O Servants of Allah
It is important that our hearts remain filled with faith so that we can focus on what Allah has ordained us to do and forbidden us to abstain from. A faithful person’s heart desires nothing but the agreement of Allah and sets on no one except the remembrance of Allah. A servant of Allah leaves all his affairs to the Will of the Almighty and is satisfied in whatever his provisions present him with in this life. On the Day of Judgement such persons will be indeed declared successful and they shall inherit Jannah. Allah also preserves such person from the evil of others in this world.
قَالَ اللّهُ هَذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّادِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا رَّضِيَ اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُواْ عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
[5:119]

Allah further says:
فَسَتَذْكُرُونَ مَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ وَأُفَوِّضُ أَمْرِي إِلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

فَوَقَاهُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِ مَا مَكَرُوا وَحَاقَ بِآلِ فِرْعَوْنَ سُوءُ الْعَذَابِ
[40:44-45]

If a Muslim accepts Allah’s obedience wholeheartedly and is an enjoiner with good, he will never fail. The final outcome of all actions rests with Allah alone.
وَمَن يُسْلِمْ وَجْهَهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى وَإِلَى اللَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ
[31:22]

Such a person does not worry about the mischief makers. He places his affairs in the hands of Allah and indeed none is worthy of trust as Allah.
وَاللّهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللّهِ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ وَكِيلاً [4:81]

There are various ways through which the heart of a believer finds peace in pursuit of a pure and clean life. This can come from worship, contentment, acceptance of what Allah has given and taken away, faith in the hereafter, zikr and glorification of Allah. The benefits of this are also many; these include a pure heart, peace of mind, baraka and happiness in home and family, spiritual strength, security and protection from evil deeds which divide humanity. Our prophet prayed:
الهم أني أسالك نفسا مطمئنه، تؤمن بلقاءك و ترض بقضاءك و تقنع بعطائك

Allah has said in the holy Quran that He and his angles send their blessings on the Prophet Muhammad; those of you who have accepted Islam, bless the Prophet and surrender to Allah’s guidance.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
[33:56]

اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
.إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
.إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

و ارض الهم عن خلفاء الراشدين، و عن أزواجه انها امهات المؤمنين، و عن ساىر الصحابته اجمعين، و عن المؤمنين و المؤمنات، و عن جمعنا هذا برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

الهم اجعل جمعنا هذا جمعا مرحوما، و اجعل تفرقنا من بعده تفرقا معصوما، ولا تدع فينا ولا معنا شقيا ولا محروما

الهم اعز الإسلام واهد المسلمين إلى الحق، و اجمع كلمتهم على الخير و اكسر شوكه الظالمين، و اكتب الإسلام و الأمن لعبادك اجمعين

الهم يا حي يا قيوم يا ذلجلال و الإكرام، لا اله الا أنت سبحانك بك نستجير، و برحمتك نستغيث ءالا تكلنا إلى أنفسنا طرفه عين، ولآ ادنى من ذالك، و اصلح لنا شاننا كله يا مصلح شءان الصالحين

الهم ربنا احفظ
The phrase in brackets is for reading in Muslim countries only
[ جيوشنا و أوطاننا و أمراءنا و حكامنا ]
علماءنا و أيدهم كلهم بالإيمان والحق يا رب العالمين

الهم اسبغ عليهم نعمتك و أيديهم بنور حكمتاء و سددهم بتوفيقك و احفظهم بعين رعايتك

الهم انزل علينا من بركات السماء و اخرج لنا من خيرات الأرض، و بارك لنا فى ثمارنا، و زروعنا، و كل أرزاقنا يا ذا الجلال و الإكرام

ربنا اتنا فى الدنيا حسنه و فى الاخره حسنه و قنا عذاب النار

الهم اغفر لكل من امن بك الأحياء منهم و الأموات، انك سميع قريب مجيب الدعوات، يا كريم يا منان

أمين يا رب العالمين

الله اكبر الله اكبر الله اكبر
لا اله الا الله
و الله اكبر و الله الحمد

و كل عام و انتم بخير

و السلام عليكم

Why is Salaat (five times obligatory prayer) so important for a Muslim?

In Surah Maryam Ayahs 58 & 59 Allah Subhanuhu wa Taala says that He selected prophets and messengers among the children of Adam and among the generations of Noah, Abraham and Israel and blessed them; and when these Apostles received the revelations of Allah they bowed down in prostration to Him and cried in submission to their Lord. But after them, came more generations of people who stopped praying completely or did not observe the timings of their prayers, nor were they regular in their prayers, or when they prayed they did so half-heartedly and paid no attention to it, and continued to follow their own carnal desires. For such people there is a bad outcome awaiting them in the Hereafter, unless they repent and establish Salat and follow the right path.

أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا إِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَن oخَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا
oفَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا
oإِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُوْلَئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا
[19:58-60]

In Surah Al-Ankaboot, Ayah 45 Allah has also given a criterion to see if our Salat is right. Allah says Salat keeps the worshipper away from immoral acts and evil deeds. So by applying this measure we can see for ourselves if our Salat is Alhamdulillah correct. If not, then we need to make improvement in the performance of our Salat to avoid the outcome predicted in Surah Maryam inshaAllah.

اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاء وَالْمُنكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ
[29:45]

The essentials of Islam consist of the following sources of Islam in the order of priority as listed below where each is not equal to the other but flows from its preceding point. In this matrix, Salat forms part of elements 1 and 2:

1) Teachings of the Holy Quran which reinforce the fundamental principles of nature and humanity;
2) Demonstration of major obligations and prohibitions and human relationships to reinforce the fundamental principles, as personified in the Seerah of Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless and preserve him;
3) Additional enhancement such as nawafils and good deeds to reinforce the fundamental principles established through the Sunnah;
4) Agreement of majority of scholars on additional enhancement;
5) Agreement of the scholars of the Ummah on additional enhancement.

Example of Life of the World

By Syed Sharfuddin

The example of life of this world is like rain which Allah sends down from the sky that irrigates the earth and produces food which men and cattle enjoy until the earth is adorned with beautiful flowers, fruits and greenery everywhere. Closer to harvest time, when people think they have obtained the most from earth and have mastery over it, Allah sends His command, by night or by day, to cause the earth to turn into a barren land as if it had never flourished before. Allah gives such examples for those who reflect. [Surah Yunus 10:24]

إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاء أَنزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاء فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الأَرْضِ مِمَّا يَأْكُلُ النَّاسُ وَالأَنْعَامُ حَتَّىَ إِذَا أَخَذَتِ الأَرْضُ زُخْرُفَهَا وَازَّيَّنَتْ وَظَنَّ أَهْلُهَا أَنَّهُمْ قَادِرُونَ عَلَيْهَآ أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلاً أَوْ نَهَارًا فَجَعَلْنَاهَا حَصِيدًا كَأَن لَّمْ تَغْنَ بِالأَمْسِ كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ (10:24)

There could be no better example than the example of earth to illustrate the reality of life which at the most can be 100 years for human beings. In fact, by the time a person reaches hundred, if he comes to live that long, despite his wealth and status he is almost finished with no movement left in his muscles, faded memory, lack of strength or capacity to live on his own without medical or family support. The same person may have moved mountains, conquered great battles and accomplished awesome feats in his youth; he may have been a fountain of knowledge and summit of wisdom in his prime age; he may have been a great leader of a nation or a professional who invented and operated things for society but now in his late twilight years he has forgotten everything and lost his glitter. He can’t even eat properly, remember names or sit straight, let alone walk more than twenty steps.

The earth which is the origin and final abode of man is precisely like that. With the water it receives for its sustenance from sky it gives out its best adornments when it is in its prime but it gradually begins to see its greenery turn into gold and leaves falling off its trees which then fly away in the wind leaving the earth barren and dry as if it had never seen spring before.

The sum total of what man does in his lifetime is pursuit of happiness in the form of chasing great ambitions and satisfying material and emotional needs. He works hard or is lucky by an accident of inheritance to have a successful business, achieve fame, live well, afford good food, good living, good cars and good company of others like him. Almost all the endeavours of human life from political governance and from successful financial investment to good economic management are centred around the attainment of these goals. Happiness comes from fulfilment of desires which are possible to obtain if you are successful materially.

Assuming one is able to acquire all this and more which perhaps the billionaire entrepreneurs of this world, successful leaders of great nations and world class generals and celebrities claim to have, there comes a time when they start slipping off their success orbit either because of ill health, old age or emotional breakdown.

Just when they think they have achieved all they wanted and could get with the pressing of a button, their age starts to catch up sooner than expected and their medical tests begin to show decay and decline in their bodies requiring drugs, therapies and staying away from their favourite foods and activities. Add a few more years go bye and they are as good as a weakling with their grip on the control buttons loosening and their bodies turning into a barren collection of bones and skin. Then like a harvest which is ripe and blown away by the autumn wind, the sceptre of time takes them six feet under the earth as if they never existed before. All that remains is a gave number for reference and for their next of kin to occasionally visit to lay flowers. A few decades later even that is lost.

In the example in Surah Yunus above, the words “Our command comes by day or night” أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلاً أَوْ نَهَارًا are significant. Just as some plantations have a longer life span but some others short, the life span of man is also different for each individual. Death can come to anyone by night or by day irrespective of age. Steve Jobs was one of the most successful men but he passed away at a very early age. The young Pharaoh Tutankhamun was even younger but he was renowned to be one of the most powerful kings in the Pharaoh dynasty.

In this example Allah reminds men that although they live only once and die only once in this world they can see the example of earth living and dying every year with the rotating cycle of spring, summer, autumn and winter and making a loop to start all over again.

This example challenges man to think. To ask why is he born if he is to die one day; why should he make any effort in life if the result of his toil is not permanent; and why can’t he stop being old or conquer death to live forever.

When he starts reflecting on the journey of his origin, development and destination, he becomes aware of the true purpose of life. He realises that the life of this world is an investment for the hereafter like the harvest which is stored in the granary for the rainy season. He realises that there is a Supreme being Allah who causes the weather to change, for rain to fall, for the earth to become wet and green and then turn dry and yellow. He knows that death is but a passage into the next world. And he finally figures out that what he had been pursuing (happiness) was a mirage. The real pursuit of life is to prepare for the everlasting life where there is no death and no autumn. He does not need to chase success in a temporary life of a few decades which leaves him empty handed at the very time when he thinks he owns the world.

Prohibition of Alcohol in Islam

By Syed Sharfuddin

One of the signs of the End of Times, among the many minor and major signs identified in Ahadith is that the use of alcohol will become common in Muslim society and people will give various names to it and declare it permissible. 1

Although drinking alcohol has always been prevalent in Muslim communities from old times, especially the rich and aristocratic classes, it was often done in closed doors and those who indulged in it were a small minority. They also felt a sense of guilt and shame about it.2 But in the last few decades, Muslims who drink alcohol have become bold and take it as a sign of being enlightened and forward looking secular Muslims. Much damage has been done by the secular poetry writers of the last century under colonial rule when alcohol was freely available and wine was associated with love, song and dance. This secular tradition has heavily undermined the prohibition on alcohol in Islam.

These Muslims fall in various degrees of tolerance levels. Some limit their drinking to beer or wine and keep measure to justify that they are drinking moderately and are in command of their senses. Others go a step further and keep their drinking and prayers separate. Some even question where Allah has forbidden alcohol in the same way as He has forbidden pork and dead animals. This essay therefore addresses this major fallacy and tries to show how Quran specifically forbids alcohol for Muslims in all situations.

Drinking alcohol was part of the pagan Arab culture. The Arabs brewed alcohol from a number of products such as wheat, honey, barley, dates and olives. When Prophet Mohammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, spread the message of Islam, his companions were used to taking alcohol at home and also socially. This continued for some years until the Prophet migrated to Madina where Allah made alcohol progressively Haram for Muslims in four stages.

Stage 1

In Surah Al-Nahl, Chapter 16, the Quran mentions intoxicants as man-made products from natural fruits which Allah has given man for sustenance.

وَمِن ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالأَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لآيَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
And from the fruits of the palm trees and grapevines you take intoxicants and wholesome substances as good provisions. Indeed, in that is a sign for a people who reason. [Surah Nahl 16:67]

In this verse Allah makes a distinction between fresh natural fruits such as dates and grapes and compares them with man-made products and intoxicants as food and drink. Since there was no prohibition on alcohol in this verse, the companions of the Prophet continued its use in Makkah.

Stage 2

After the Prophet had migrated to Madina, Omar bin Khattab and Maaz ibn Jabal asked the Prophet about alcohol and games of chance because alcohol deprived people of correct judgement and gambling deprived people of their wealth. In response, Allah revealed the following verse in Surah Al-Baqarah, Chapter 2:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ كَذَلِكَ يُبيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمُ الآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, in them is great sin and (some) benefits for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit. And they ask you what they should spend. Say, the excess (beyond needs). Thus Allah makes clear to you the verses (of revelation) that you might give thought. [2:219]

After this verse was revealed people said there is benefit in alcohol but not too much and it is not forbidden; therefore, the companions of the Prophet continued its use. There is no doubt that alcohol causes harm through disorientation of thought and leads to doubt and immoral acts. It causes harm to the user through ill health and accident and to others through violence and crime. It is also highly addictive. Those who get used to drinking alcohol habitually become alcoholics and ruin their health and households. The same is true of gambling even though there are benefits if they win, although not always. In short, there is more harm in these two things than there is good from them for man. Even in non-Muslim societies drinking alcohol is not without its warnings and stigma.

Stage 3

When a Mohajir companion of the Prophet mixed up the verses of the holy Quran in a Maghreb prayer in Madina, while he was under the influence of alcohol, Allah revealed the following verse in Surah Al-Nisa, Chapter 4:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلاَ جُنُبًا إِلاَّ عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىَ تَغْتَسِلُواْ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّن الْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا
O you who have accepted Islam, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through (a place of prayer), until you have washed …Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving. [4:43]

This verse was stronger than the previous two verses about alcohol. The companions of the Prophet started to exercise caution and abstained from drinking when they prepared for the prayers. It meant that for the five times prayers they had to stay away from drinking for a good measure of the day. This was to prepare them for the final prohibition on alcohol, which was to come soon.

Stage 4

Saad bin Abi Waqas who was very fond of alcohol before the prohibition, narrates that once the mohajir Quraish went to a meal hosted by a tribe of the Ansaar, the original inhabitants of Madina. There everyone had too much to drink. The Quraish and Ansaar started boasting about themselves, each tribe highlighting its bravery and describing the other tribe as coward. They picked up a fight among themselves which resulted in bruises on their faces and minor injuries. When they became sober they started blaming each other for the injuries and became enemies from friends. Soon thereafter Allah fully prohibited the consumption of alcohol and gambling for the believers in the following verses in Surah Al-Maidah, Chapter 5.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالأَنصَابُ وَالأَزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاء فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلاَةِ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ
O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, (sacrificing on) stone alters (to gods other than Allah), and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful. [5:90]. Satan only wants to cause between yourselves animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist? [5:91]

It is unfortunate that despite the historical evidence about the prohibition and the complying attitude of the companions of the Prophet after the final prohibition, many modern Muslims still do not regard this verse as evidence of the final prohibition and keep referring to the verses of the earlier stages as justification for ‘moderate’ drinking. In failing to reach the correct interpretation, they disregard three important things: that, being an addiction of the Arabs, alcohol could only be proscribed progressively akin to the withdrawal procedure in an alcoholics’ rehabilitation centre. Secondly, in the final prohibition, the act of drinking is described by Allah as the vile work of Shaitan whose animosity to human beings is left in no doubt. Finally, as if to cap it all at the end of the verse 5:91, Allah questions Muslims about alcohol and asks: “Will you not desist?” After such clarity, can any Muslim stand up to Allah and say,:”I will not desist”. Astagferullah.

All products whether liquid, gas or solids which result in intoxication or disorientation of mind are covered by the word “khamr” in the Quran. These include stimulants e.g. cocaine, depressants e.g. alcohol, opium-based substances e.g. heroin and morphine, hallucinogens e.g. LSD and party drugs e.g. ecstasy. Even though some of these products are used in the pharmacological industry for medical reasons, the overall impact of these products is harmful for humans. In fact, by not totally banning “khamr” as in the case of pork, Allah has done a great favour to Muslims. Had this been the case otherwise, no believing Muslim would have accepted surgery under anaesthesia nor taken drugs where substances similar to the chemical formula of alcohol are used in the preparation of life saving medicines.

Following the full prohibition, the companions and followers of prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, threw away their stocks of alcohol in the Baqee ground and ripped open their leather vessels. Thereafter, there was no turning back on alcohol. According to a Hadith of Prophet Mohammad, peace be upon him, narrated by ibn Umar, “khamr” is the mother of all evils and all intoxicating things and all forms of alcohol are forbidden. Whether it is taken in little quantity or taken in large volumes, “khamr” is forbidden. Allah sends His curse on ten associates of alcohol: those who engage in making, brewing, storing, buying, selling, benefiting from its sale, pouring, transporting and all matters related to it. The one who drinks alcohol and the one who offers it to others is included in the curse, because alcohol distorts individual thinking and destroys friendships, families and society collectively.

The following sources were used in the compilation of this essay:
1) The Holy Quran
2) Tafseer Ibn Katheer
3) Fi Rihab Al Quran. Dedicated to Imam Sheikh Ibrahim Bin Umar Bayyud (1899-1981). Written by Isa bin Mohammed Al Sheikh bilHaj. Published by Jamiatul Turath. Al Ghararah, Ghardaya, Algeria. Pages 111-113 Volume 2.

Notes:
1. (1) Shahih Bokhari. Kitab un Nikah. Baab Yaqul al Rijal wa Yakthar al Nisaa. (2) Ibn Majah Kitab al Fitan . Baab Al Aqubaat (3247/2). (3) Shahih Bokhari. Kitab ul Ashrabah. Baab ma jaa a fiman yastahil alkhamr.
2. It is mentioned in the Travels of Ibn Jubair (1145-1217), one of the earliest writers of the travel of Hajj in the Andalucian period.
3. Surah Al-Nahl is a Meccan surah which was revealed in the chronological order of 70 out of 114 surahs.
4. Surah Al-Baqarah is a Madani surah which was revealed in the chronological order of 87 out of 114 surahs.
5. Surah Al-Nisa is a Madani surah which was revealed in the chronological order of 92 out of 114 surahs.
6. Surah Al-Maida is a Madani surah which was revealed in the chronological order of 112 out of 114 surahs.